Grice's Maxims

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Insights

- Communication = Co-operative activity

- Communicaters interest to make conversation smooth

- Speakers behave predictably 

- As hearers when working out somebody's meaning we assume they're being co-operative

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Principles

When someone speak to us, we assume:

1) Quality:   - What they say is not unknowingly untruthful

                  - Truthfulness of what they say not need to be stated

2) Quantity: - Don't hold anything back which is important

                  - Not give more information than is asked

3) Manner:  - What they say is as straightforward as they can put it

4) Relation:  - What they say is relevant

Be true, Be brief, Be clear, Be relevant

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Levinson 1983

- Maxims specificy what participants have to do to converse in maxiamlly efficent, rational, co-operative way

- Speak sincerely, relevantly and clearly whilst providing sufficient information

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Gricean Pragmatics

- 'Implicature' occurs when speakers flouts maxim

- Listener looks for meaning other than what is said

- Intended meaning arrived through speakerworking out 'pragmatic force' out of utterance rather than 'semantic sense' 

- Listener assumes the speaker assumes that the listener can work it out

Maxims in writing:

- Allow deep subtle insights

- Flouting Maxims = difficult as less easy to make sure reader understands

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