Giant structures

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Each carbon atom only forms three covalent bonds. This means that there are layers which are free to slide over each other. Each carbon atom has one delocolised free electron. It is these free electrons which alow it to conduct heat and electricity.

  • soft
  • slipery
  • weak intermolecular forces between the layers
  • good conductor
  • non-metal
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Each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds so it does not have a free electron(s). Very rigid giant covalent structure. It is the hardest natural substance so it is used for drill tips.

  • Four covalent bonds
  • does not conduct electricity because no free electron
  • hard
  • rigid
  • giant structure.
  • prety
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Buckminster fullerenes

It is nano science because it has less than 100 atoms. Shaped as a holow ball. 60 carbon atoms.Because of so many covalent carbon bond it is a strong structure.

  • strong intermolecular forces
  • high meltin/boiling points
  • large surface area.
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Silocon dioxide

Each silocon atom is covalently bonded to four oxygen atoms, and each oxygen atom is covalently bonded to two silicon atoms. SiO2. Silicon dioxide is very hard. It has a very high melting point  and boiling point , is insoluble in water, and does not conduct electricity, very strong covalentbonds that hold the silicon and oxygen atoms in the giant covalent structure.

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sodium chloride

Also known as salt NaCl it produces usefull products when disolved in water with a and electrolised. it produces hydrogen, chlorine and sodium hydroxide.

The neagative ions are attracted to the positive electrode and the positive ions are attracted to the negative electrode. NaCl is ionicly bonded. so it has free electrons.

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carbon dioxide

It is a product of combustion. If it is carbon dioxide it will turn limewater cloudy. CO2 because in the last 100 years the amount of fosil fuels being burnt has increased so the amount of carbon dioxide in the air has increased this line is the same as the amount that the earth has warmed up so the more fosil fuels that are burnt the warmer the world gets.

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