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CAD/CAM- 2D Drafting

The production of 3D design into an engineering drawing. 

Used for packaging in order to produce a net.

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CAD/CAM- DTP and Image manipulation

Desktop Publishing- Uses text and pictures. (Combines word processing, graphic design and printing). It replaces typesetting. 

Ad- Set-up and customise pages, add grids and guides to position, add colour seperation/ bleed areas, manipulate pic/text, select any typeface, preview and save/send. 

Drawings are vector or pixel based. 

Vectors- Uses angles and distance. AD- Scaled up gives same quality, you can send it to CAM Machines. DIS- Bigger file size.

Pixels- DIS- Scaled means it looses quality and you cannot send it to CAM Machines.

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CAD/CAM- 3D Virtual Modelling and Testing

Specialised software which provides a mathmatical representation of certain situations.

You can see how products react in different environments.

Walkthrough modelling- Simulute people walking through the buildings and see their viewpoints. 

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CAD/CAM- Vinyl Cutting

The use of CAD/CAM to cut out materials e.g. vinyl stickers for vehicles.

Image produced on a computer-----> Cutter is used for contor cutting-----> Background removed (weeding)-----> Use of backing paper to put the stickers on. 

Wire Framing- Production of wire framing on a computer. 

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CAD/CAM- Laser Cutting and Engraving

Acrylic or MDF is used.

The use of a high power laser to cut materials.

AD- Precise, Finished, lack of physical contact, decreased warping, and it is used for materials that cannot be cut in other ways. 

DIS- Expensive, high energy and you need to replace it. 

By adjusting the speed and strength of laser you can engrave materials. 

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ICT- EPOS

Electronic Point of Sale e.g. Barcode

Scan the barcode----> it is deducted from the stock list-----> the product is automatically re-orded when needed----> order from the manufacturer. 

AD- Sales Analysis, Trace to origin (faults), Full immediate account of sales, React to trends, Less chance of overstock. 

DIS- Technological Faults

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ICT- Internet Marketing and Sales

Used for the promotion of products.

AD (seller): Increased customer base, Increased global profile, Faster processing of orders, Detailed knowlege of trends, Reduced sales force/ retail outlets, Cheaper than other methods, Target specific groups. 

DIS: Security threats (bank details), Shared information without permission, Pop-ups spread virus', Slow connections are frustrating, Hard to navigate, No hands-on, Junk-mail. 

AD (Customer): Convenience, Discounts, Comparison, Lots of Choice.

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ICT- Electronic Communications

EM Waves or signals are used.

Radiowaves for the Radio.

Microwaves for the Telephone.

Longer wavelengths. 

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Digital Media- RFID

Radio Frequency Identification (i.e. Identifying a product with a tag)

Tags received by e-reader-----> Often used for pallets----> Secure system stops theft----> Based on transmittion and reception of RF signals between transmitter and transponder.

Passive Transponder: Uses power form electromagnetic signals from e-reader.  AD: Thin and easy to use            DIS: Weak strength and Limited range.

Active Transponder: AD: Battery powered and long distance.     DIS: Expensive and Limited Lifetime. Used for automatic toll booth payments.

Can be used for the wrong reasons.

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Digital Media- Digital TV Broadcasting systems usi

Components: 1) HDTV Monitor

2) HD Satellite Receiver

3) Standard Satellite Dish

4) HDMI Cable, DVI-D and Audio Cable

AD:Higher aspect ratio (movie screen), High Resolution (more pixels), High definition (high quality), High frame rate (high quality and smoother).

DIS: High cost for TV and services.

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Digital Media- Commercial Digital Printing

Uses electronic files in print production rather than traditional printing plates. You can customise your documents. Low set up costs, Cost effective on small runs, Less paper/ink. 

Print on Demand: Printing for small amounts e.g. brochures. Large-format digital printing can be used to make large banners and posters for promo. Also used on small runs of books.

Variable Data Printing: Customises and Personalises the documents. Databases used to make each name and address different (personal details). Customers appreciates it more as less general. 

Web-to-Print: Allows mail to be personalised online. Customers choose images, text and photos to attach to items e.g. greeting cards. Proof shown when ready. One click to printer- quick.

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Digital Media- Transfer of data using Bluetooth

Wireless system to connect devices together.

Exchange data over a short distance.

Uses short range RF waves.

AD: No line of sight, connect to many devices (<8), Large Radius (10m). 

DIS: Security- Blue Jacking- Send business card that saved to contacts. Allow text messages that are automatically opened as known contact.

Blue Bugging- Hacker remotely access the mobile and uses its features. E.g. Texting and making calls.  

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Digital Media- Transfer of data using Bluetooth

Wireless system to connect devices together.

Exchange data over a short distance.

Uses short range RF waves.

AD: No line of sight, connect to many devices (<8), Large Radius (10m). 

DIS: Security- Blue Jacking- Send business card that saved to contacts. Allow text messages that are automatically opened as known contact.

Blue Bugging- Hacker remotely access the mobile and uses its features. E.g. Texting and making calls.  

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Printing Process'

Photocopying: 1) Charging- Drum electrostatically charged. Photoconductive mat conduct elec when exposed to light. 2) Expose- Light shown on the document. White shines thorugh an Photo becomes conductive and + charged. Others - charge. 3) Developing- Powder (Toner) (-) applied to drum. 4) Transfer- Toner from drum to the Paper. 5) Fusing- Toner melt and bond by heat and pressure rollers. 6) Clean- Use rubber blade and discharged by light. 

Offset Lithography: Plate is found on plate cylinder, has design in oli-based emultion. Roller apply water on blank portions. Ink stick to emulsion as it is repelled. Printing plate roll on blanket cylinder w/ rubber blanket. Paper rolls and picks up ink. 

Flexography: Has a series of rollers which each apply a single colour (CMYK). Has Plater cylinder, anilox roll that applys ink and ink pan. Some have doctor blade for better ink distribution.

Gravure: Plate Cylinder in ink fountain fills the recessed cells. Doctor blade removes excess ink. Paper between impression and plate cylinder for force for even and max coverage. Paper in dryer before next colour. 

Screen Printing: Cut out the stencil. Scrape ink over with squeegee. Lift the screen.

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Health and Safety- Hazards and Precautions

RSI: Repetitive Strain Injury

When muscles in arms and upperback tense for a long time as poor posture/ repetitive movements. 

Effects muscles, tendons and nerves.

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Health and Safety- Safe Working Practices

Apron, Goggles ect.

Computer: Tilt the keyboard, Ergonomic keyboard and mouse, Take regular breaks. 

Eyestrain: Adjust the brightness, Swivel the screen, Take regular breaks. 

Risk Assessments: 1) Identify Hazards

2) Who will it hurt? How?

3) Evaluate and Decide the precautions.

4) Record Findings and use them

5) Reveiw assessments and updates.

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Finishing Techniques- Hot Foil Blocking

Provides a reflective print and other effects. 

AD: Enhances and adds value and quality

DIS: Expensive, Can crease/tear, Increases weight.]

Uses a Die

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Graphics

Good Luck!

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