CARTRIDGE PAPER - Textured surface - for sketching with pencils, crayons, pastels, gouache, inks and watercolours.
LAYOUT PAPER - Thin and translucent (you can see light through it) - used for sketching designs on.
BLEED-PROOF PAPER - For drawing with felt - tips and marker pens - the ink doesn't sread out or bleed.
TRACING PAPER - Translucent - used to copy images.
NEWSPRINT - Very thin - used for newspapers.
SUGAR PAPER - Cheap and uncoated - used for the cheap mounting up of work - fades in sunlight.
PHOTO PAPER - High gloss or matt coating and quick drying surface - used for printing photos and for presentations.
BOARD (CARD) - Rigid surface for printing - used for model-making.
CARTONBOARD - Boards made from layers of different materials - used for packaging.
MOUNT BOARD - Thick and rigid - used for high quality picture mounting.
CORRUGATED CARD - Strong and lightweight - made up of a fluted inner core between two outer layers - used in secondary packaging (for protection) and point of sale stands.
FOAM BOARD - 2 outer layers of high quality card and a central layer of foam - used for point of sale stands and presentation boards.
SPIRAL WOUND TUBING - High strength and 3D printable surface - used for packaging.
SOLID WHITE BOARD - High quality bleached surface - for printing and primary packaging.
DUPLEX BOARD - Different colour and texture on both sides - unbleached - ideal for food packaging.
GREY BOARD - Rigid - Covered with paper to print on to - used for games boards etc.
Paper and Board
Paper and Board are made from WOOD PULP. If the pulp comes from well-managed forests, the paper and board are fairly sustainable.
Most types of paper and board are RECYCLABLE.
'VIRGIN' PAPER is made from new wood pulp, not recycled material.
Paper and board are BIODEGRADABLE - they'll rot away naturally.
Paper sizes go from A0 to A1, A2 and so on, halving in size each time. As the paper gets smaller the number increases. The width of A3 paper is the length of A4.
A4 paper - 297mm x 210mm.
PRIMARY PACKAGING - Packaging for individual items.
SECONDARY PACKAGING - Used to contain lots of the same item.
Laminating paper and spiral wound tubes
Laminating paper with a layer of another material creates a composite with different qualities.
COMPOSITE: Made up of 2 or more materials.
Aluminium laminating - A combination of paper and aluminium foil is used to package food. This keeps flavours in and air out. Graphics can be printe onto the paper.
Polythene laminating - Paper can be coated with polythene to make it waterproof. E.g paper cups.
Polystyrene laminating - FOAM CORE BOARD is made be laminating polystyrene foam between card. It's stiff but lightweight and is used for moutning posters and making models.
SPIRAL WOUND TUBES - Made from paper wound in a spiral and held together with glue. Theyre light but the tube shape makes them strong. Theyre often covered with a single sheet of paper thats smooth and easy to print on. E.g fireworks, toilet rolls and snack containers (e.g.twiglets).
Pros and cons of paper and board
COST AND QUALITY - Expensive paper and board make it feel of high quality. It also adds to the final price of the product though, so its only worth doing for luxury products of products that have to last a long time, e.g. certificates.
FLEXIBILITY AND RIGIDITY - When making a 3D product you need something that can be bent and folded without breaking, but is rigid enough to keep its shape. E.g corrugated card.
FINISH - Solid white board has an excellent high quality surface for printing on, but you can save money by using cheaper recycled board laminated with high quality paper. For something that doesnt need a good finish you could just use plain recycled board.
STRENGTH AND WEIGHT - Materials e.g corrugated card or grey board can withstand a fair bit of force without breaking so theyre good for heavy duty packaging or making products that will be handled a lot. Stronger materials are often heavier or bulkier which adds to transport costs.
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SUSTAINABILITY - Using recycled materials preserves woodlands and saves energy that would have been used to pulp new wood. But recycled paper and board may contain toxic chemicals, so are not suitable for packaging food. Laminated paper is hard to recycle.
More Paper and Board
Paper and Board are made from the vegetable fibres found in wood. These are carefully extracted through the process of crushing into wood pulp. It is then refined by passing through a series of dryers and rollers.
Achieving different properties of paper and board
COATING, Addition of a SIZING AGENT - seals the absorbancy of the paper's surface. LAMINATING - Sticking together layers of thinner card to achive a board.
Virgin paper is generally stronger and easier to be made whiter than recycled paper. It makes up 90% of all paper. It's used for food containers to reduce the risk of contamination.
Cartonboard can be printed on and is used for packaging because it's strong. It's made from different layers of materials and usually has a white coating on one or more sides to make it easier to print on. SOLID UNBLEACHED BOARD - brown, very strong (drinks). FOLING BOXBOARD - white top layer with cream bottom layer (toys and games). WHITE LINED CHIPBOARD - recycled board with a white top surface (detergent powders).
Correx - fluted plastic board, strong but lightweight and is weather resistant. e.g exterior signs.
Paper can also be made from corn, straw, cotton and hemp. It is important to recycle as much as possible to try and save our planet from additional global warming.
- 40% reduction in energy is achieved when paper is totally recycled, compared with the energy used in making virgin paper.
- 30% of the solid waste dumped in landfill is paper based and the rotting down of this waste produces methane - a greenhouse gas.
- Deforestation is a major issue as it can cause global warming because trees absorb CO2 which is the main greenhouse gas.
Advantages of recycling - Kinder to the environment, Energy saving, companies like to be seen as 'greener' these days.
Disadvantages of recycling - Harmful chemicals are given off to the environment when bleached white, not as strong as virgin paper, more expensive to make.