• Created by: zurliana
  • Created on: 08-01-13 12:28

Materials and components - (Cartridge Paper) - Pap

Weight: 120-150 gsm 

Description: Creamy white paper with a smooth suface and a slight texture

Uses: Good general purpose drawing paper

         Heavier weights can be used with paints

Properties: Opaque

                Accept most drawing media 

Cost: More expensive than copier paper

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Materials and components - Tracing Paper - Paper

Weight: 60/90 gsm

                   Transparent paper  
                   Pale grey smooth surface

Uses: Heavier weight prefered by draughtspeople 

Properties: Allows tracing throguh onto another sheet in order to develop design ideas

Cost: Heavier weight can be quite expensive

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Materials and components - Folding Boxboard - Boar

( chemical pulp)

(mechanical pulp) - pulp my manufactured grind stones, products that require less strength

( chemical pulp) - pulp with added chemicals to wood chips

Properties: good for scoring, bending and creasing without splitting

Uses: Food packaging

         general cartons application 

Cost: relatively inexpensive

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Materials and components - Corrugated Board - Boar

(Paper Liner) 

(Flute Paper) - Paper bent in a wave pattern

(Paper Liner) - Flat board that sticks to medium

Properties: Impact resistance

          Excellent strength for weight 


Uses: Packaging for fragile goods 

          Box makign material 

Cost: Relatively inexpensive

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Materials and components - Solid White Board - Boa

Made from pure belached wood pulp

Properties: Strong 


Uses: Packaging for frozen food

         Ice cream 


Cost: Expensive

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Materials and components - Foil Lined board - Boar

Laminated Foil Coating ( can be used for SWD,CB,FB) 

Properties: Strong visual impact

                  Foil provides exceelent varrier again moisture

Uses: Cosmetics cartons

         Prepaked foods

Cost: Expensive

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Materials and components - Polyethylene - Packagin

Provides protection against outside moisture

Helps internal layer bond with aluminium foil 

Helps the paperboard bond with the aluminium fol

Does not react with the liquid and keeps its fresh 

Uses: Plastic bags

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Materials and components - Aluminium Foil - Packag

Provides barrier against harmful effect of air and light  

Uses: Households

         Keep food fresh 

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Materials and components - Paper Board - Packaging

Properties: Provides stiffness and shape

                  Excellent print surface for total graphic coverage 

                  Light Weight and strong

                  Thick paper based material 

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Metals - (Steel)

Ferrous material - consist iron

Used: Drinks, aerosolc paint, adhesives 

Properties: Cant be tampeered

  Variety of sizes and shapes

 Emobosesed to provide surface detail

 Directly prtined onto or a label is added.

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Metals - (Aluminium)

Non-Ferrous: Does not contain iron

Properties: Paper thin walls ( save material and energy) 

                  Internal laqquered coating does not react with content 

                  Withstand high internal pressure 


                 Printed directly on the outside

Cost: Inexpensive 

Uses: Drinks, aerosolsm health and beauty products. 

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Metals - (Tin)

Non-Ferrous: Does not contain Iron 

Properties: Holds diverse contents 

  Dispersion and recycling is easier 

  Excellent barrier again water ocygen and light 

  Different shapes and sizes

  Protective packaging

  Made from tin plate (tin coated steel) - prevent corrosion 

Cost: Inexpensive 

uses: commercial packaging

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Polymers- (Acrylic)

Uses: Prototype, modelm interior architecture

Properties: Easily thermoformed. Range of colours

  Excellent surface finish, recyclable 

  Tough and durable , Lightweight

  Withstand extreme weather conditions  

  Chemical resistant 

  Durable by resisting long term stresses

  Easy to fabricate 

Cost: Low cost

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Polymers - (PET polyethylene terephthalate)

Properties: Excellent barrier again atmospheric gases 

  Does not flavour contents 

                  Very tough 

     "crystal clear" appearence 

  Lightweight- low density 

Uses: Carbonated fizzy drinks

  Highly flavoured food 

  Microwaveable food trays

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Polymers - ( PVC polyvinyl chloride)

Properties: weather resistant

  Chemical resistant 

  Protects product from moisture and gases 

  Strong good abrasive resistance and tough 

  Can be rigid or flexible 

Uses: Packaging for toiletried

  Pharmeceutical products

  Food, water and fruit juice

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Polymers - (PP Polypropylene)

Properties: Lightweight


  Chemical resistance


  Low moisture absorbtion

  Good impact resistance 

Uses: Food packging

 Laminating paper and board 

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Polymers - (Polystyrene Rigid/Expanded)


Properties: Good impact resistance

Rigid and lightweight

Low water absorbition

Uses: Food packaging CD jewl cases


Properties: good impact resistance

  good heat insulation

      durable and lightweight

  low water absorbtion

Uses: egg carton, packaging for electrical and fragile products

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Polymers - (Styrofoam)

Properties: Easy to cut and shape

 Sanded to have a smooth surface

 Painted by acrlic paint

 Lightweigth and durable

Uses: Models

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Made from silica sand, soda ash or limestones

Properties: Looks expensive

100 percent recyclable and does not rust

Melt under high temperatures


Cost: Expensive

Uses: Can be used for food storage 

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Woods - (Jelutong)


A creamy white striaght grained wood with fine even texture

Uses: Model and pattern making 

 Excellent to carve and sculpt due to stiffness 

Adv: Works easily with hand and tools 

Glues screws and nails well

Stains, paints and varnishes well 

Disadv: Quite brittle and weak 

             Low resistance to decay 

     Cant be easily steam bent 

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Woods - (Balsa)


Pale beige to pinkish colour with a straight grain and spongy

Uses: Softest and lightest commercial wood

    Used for buoyancy aids and model making

Adv: Soft and light 

Quite strong for its weight and stable in use 

Easiest wood to cut shape and sand 

Extremely buoyant 

Disadv: Low in strength stifness and shock resistance

            Not suitable for steam bending 

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Woods - (Pine)


Honey colour, creamy white, pale yellow or a light brown straight grained wood with artistic knots

Uses: Furnitures, shelving wood carving 

Adv: Easily carved

Accepts paint easily and grows quickly 

Disadv: Warp in humid conditions

            Dents and scratches easily 

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Composites - (Carbon Fibre)

Uses: Sport equipments and vehicle components e.g. fishing rods, tennis raquets

Adv: Excellent strength to weight ratio 

Can be formed into complex aerodynamic one piece structures 

Disadv: Expensive 

    Only available in balack but surface finishes can be coloured 

    Cant be easily repaired 

    Cant be easily recycled

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Composites - (MDF Medium Density Fibreboard)

Uses: Furniture, joinery work, moulds 

Adv: less expensive than natural timbers 

Available in large sheet sized and thickness 

Has no grains therefore no tendency to split 

Consistent strentgh in all direction 

Disadv: Swells and breaks when waterlogged 

    Warps or expands if not sealed 

    Contain urea-formaldehyde which may cause eye and lung irritation when cutting or     sanding 

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Modern and Smart materials - (Polymorph)

Uses: Plastics, Moulding 

Melts at low temperature and is cheap 


Hard ---> (heat) Soft ---> (cool) hard ---> (repeat)

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Modern and Smart materials - (Thermochromic Liquid

Properties: Ability to change colous due to change in temp

Uses: thermometers and mood rings

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Modern and Smart materials - (LCD Liquid Crystal D

Flat electronic display panel which relies on sunlight or roomlight to generate images 

Adv: Use very small minimum voltage therefore last a long time 

Small Carbon footprint

Disadv: Expensive

Uses: Computer Monitors, Clocks, Tv, Phones

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Modern and Smart materials - (EPD Electronic Pape

Mimics the appearence of ordinary ink on paper 

Adv: Overcomes some limitations of computer monitors e.g. hard on the eye

Properties: Lightweight, durable and highly flexible 

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Modern and Smart materials - ( transdermal prescri

Dose of medication through skin into bloodstream 

(Permeable adhesive layer) 

(Non permeable back layer)

(Drug reservoir)

(Non permeable back layer)

(Permeable adhesive layer) 

Controls realease of prescription drug

skin is an effective barries, some medicines must combines with substances e.g. alcohol to increase ability to penetrate skin. 

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Industrial and Commercial Processes - (One off)

Uses: Prototypes, architectural modesls

Adv: Made to exact personal specifications

High qquality materials used 

Highly skilled craftperson 

Disadv: Expensive

    Labour Intensive

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Industrial and Commercial Processes - (Batch)

Uses: magazines and newspapers 

Adv: Good economies of scale 

lower unit cost 

Identical batches produced 

Disadv: If poor production planning this leads to storage (expensive) 

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Industrial and Commercial Processes - (Mass)

Uses: Electronic products e.g. phones and game consoles 

 Graphics product such as clothes labels, tickets and packaging

Adv: Specialisaiton fo workforce 

Excellent economies of scale 

Low unit cost and low labour cost 

Disadv: Low skilled workforce 

    Ethical concerns ( sweat shops) 

    High initial set up cost due to machinery 

    Inflexible- cant respond quickly to market trends

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Modelling and Prototyping - ( Block modelling of M

MDF ( Medium Density Fibreboard)

Properties: Can be cut and shaped easily using range of hand tools (no grain)

   Excellent surface finish when sanded smooth 

Can be spray painted to achieve high quality 


Properties: Can be cut and shaped easily using range of hand tools

         Its is relatively quick 

         Excellent surface finish when sanded smooth 

         Can be spray painted to achieve high quality 

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Modelling and Prototyping - (Rapid prototyping usi

stereolithogrpahy (SLA) 

Uses laser technology to create 3D objects 


Can quickly produce  3D proudct in minutes

Rapid prototyping technology

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Forming techniques - (Blow Moulding)

Uses: Plastic Bottles and containers 

Adv: Intricate shaped 

Ideal for mass prdocution 

Produce large quanitity of identical items

Used to make lightweight/ hallow parts from thermoplastics (reduce materials)

Disadv: High initial set up cost 

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Forming techniques - (Injection Moulding)

Uses: casing for electronic products, containers for storage 

Adv: Ideal for mass production 

Precision moulding (high quality or texture can be added) 

Disadv: High initial set up cost 

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Forming Techniques - (Vacuum Forming)

Uses: Chocolate box tray, blister packs

Adv: Ideal for batch production - inexpensive 

Easy to make moulds 

Disadv: Mould needs to be accurate to prevent webbing 

            Large amount of waste material produced 

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Forming techniques - (Line bending)

Uses: Brochure, menu, business cards

Adv: Ideal for One off and batch 

Straight bends are produced efficiently 

Precise temp gives a neat precise bend 

Set up costs are low 

Disadv: Must be accurately marked before bent,  can bubble if overheated 

             Must be cooled in exact position or its springs back slightly

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Joining Techniques - (Eposy resin)

Uses: Most material including expanded polystyrene (EPS) 

Adv: High performance adhesives- strong bonds 

Chemical reactions harden immediately 


Heat and chemical resistance

Disadv: Expensive

    Reaches full strength after a few days 

    Often requires manual mixing of resin and hardner - messy 

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Joining Techniques - (Polystrene Cement)

Uses: (PS) and (HIPS) should not be used in (EPS) since it dissolves 

ADV: Strong bond 

Able to use a brush to apply

Disadv: Relatively expensive, contains harmful volatile organic compounds 

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Joining Techniques - (Tensol cement)

Uses: Acrylic 

Adv: Produces high strength bonds to acryic sheet 

Clear adhesives 

Disadv: Needs to be clamped harmful VOC's 

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Joining Techniques - ( Polyvinyl acetate ( PVA))

Uses: Woods and porous ( holes or spaces for liquid or air to pass) materials e.g.   styrofoam 

Adv: Strong joint

Dries clear 

Relatievly inexpensive 

Disadv: Must be clamped 

    Not waterproof (most) 

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Printing Processes - (Photocopying)

Uses: General application e.g. busines documents 

ADV: Widely available 

Good colour reproduction and can print double sided 

Low cost per copy for small batches and high printing speed 

Disadv: Poor production quality when toner is low

    Images fade over time 

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Printing Processes - ( Offset lithography)

Uses: Business stationery, brochures, posters 

Adv: Good reproduction quality and inexpensive printing process 

Can print on a wide range of papers with high printing speed and is widley available

Disadv: Colour variation due to water and ink misture 

    Paper can stretch due to dampning flat material only require a good quality                   surface 

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Printing Processes - (Flexography)

Uses: Packaging, paperback and newspapers

Adv: Fast drying inks and relatively inexpensive to set up 

Disadv: Hard to produce fine detail, colour may not be consistent 

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Printing Processes - (Gravure)

Uses: Photographics books, postage stamps, expensive magazines

Adv: Consistent colou high speed printing process and widest printing presses 

Ink dried on evaporation 

Good results on lower quality paper 

Disadv: High cost of engraved printing, very expensive set up cost 

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Printing Processes - (Screen Printing)

Uses: Tshirts, posters, plastic and metal signage, pos displays

Adv: Stencils are easy to produce - photo emulsion technique

Versatile- can print on any surface 

Can produce large volumes 

Disadv: Difficult to achieve fine detail 

Requires long drying times

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Finishing techniques - (Laminating)

Uses: Documents, posters, buiness card

Properties: Good gloss and strength, low in cost 

Polypropylee (PP) fed through heatinf wedge under high pressure. Glue is heated before applied to film therefore applicaiton is faster 

non adhesive ---> adhesive by heat are easier to handle 

glue solid and room temp therfore less likely to shift or warp afetr being applied

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Finishing techniques - (varnishing)

Uses: Magazines, brochures leaflets 

Adv: High gloss finish and protects the printing underneath 

Disadv: Takes time to dry therfore schedules muat be delayed 

Ultraviolet light instantaneously dries the varnish 

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Finishing techniques - (Hot foil Blocking)

Uses: Posters, pos displays 

Adv: Visually appealing and enhances and add value to conventionally printed materials 

Disadv: Costly

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