Grammar Grammar Grammar

A compilation of basic GCSE Latin Grammar, written by the worlds leading expert.

  • Created by: Tom
  • Created on: 14-04-11 10:46

Cases Of Nouns

                         1                              2                         3                          4

Nom                a                              us                          rex

Acc                 am                           um                         regem

Gen                ae                            i                             regis

Dat                 ae                            o                            regi

Abl                 as                             o                            rege

Nom               ae                            i                              reges

Acc                as                            os                           reges

Gen               arum                       orum                        regum

Dat                is                             is                             regibus

Abl                is                              is                                  regibus  

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O                 I

S                 You


MUS            We

TIS              You

NT               They

eg. amo, amas, amat, amamus, amatis, amant

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1) Adjectives agree with their noun ie. they are the same gender, number and case.

2) The ending of a noun and adjective won't always be the same, even though they agree.

eg. ducem bonum

     multae legiones.

they will have different endings if they are diffferent declensions.

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Perfect Tense

-I                I loved    

-ISTI           You Loved

-IT              He Loved

-IMUS         We loved

-ISTIS          You (pl) Loved

-ERUNT      They Loved

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Imperfect Tense

Bam             I was 

Bas             You were

Bat              he was

Bamus         We were

Batis            You were

Bant             They were

NB. the Imperfect expresses an ongoing action in the past, whereas the Perfect Indicative expresses a single action in the past.

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Pluperfect Tense

ERAM               I had

ERAS               You Had

ERAT               He had

ERAMUS          We Had

ERATIS           You had

ERANT            They had

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=To do something

Amare- To Love

Monere- To warn

Regere- To rule

Audire- To hear

This is the present active infinitive.

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Present Participle

It is formed from a verb but works like an adjective, this means it needs to agree with whatever noun or pronoun it is qualifying.

It is a third declension word, so its endings are similar to see.

eg. servae in silvia amulantem viderunt.

=they saw the slave walking in the wood.

the present participle ammbulantem (NB, NT) is in the Accusative Singular and so therefore must agree with a noun in the Accusative Singular.

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Perfect Active Participle

All perfect participles are passive except those of deponent vers which are active.

deponent= passive in form but active in meaning.

monitus- having been warned (PPP)

secutus-having followed (PAP)

examples: adeptus- having obtained

                egressus- having gone out

                ingressus- having gone in

               regressu- having returned.

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cum= when

As we know cum+abl= with. but it also means "when". You can work out which meaning it is by looking at what follows.

cum+abl= with

cum+ subjuntive= when

the "subjuntice" is a part of the Latin verb that indicates we are in particular kind of clause. it is translated normally.

cum+ pluperfect subjunctice+ when I had.

eg. cum dixisset- when he had said

     cum fugissent- when they had fled.

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Pluperfect Subjuntive

Imperfect subjunctive

Amav                             issem = had loved

Monu                            isses

Rex                               isset

Audiv                            issemus

Cep                              issetis

Fu                                issent

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Imperfect Subjunctive

Imperfect Infinitive

amare                            m = I was Loving

monere                          s

regere                           t

 audire                           mus

capare                          tis

esse                             nt

eg. cum audirent- when they were listening

     cum Romae essemus- when we were in Rome.

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Indirect Questions

1) verb of knowing, asking, wondering.

rogo- I ask

Cognosco- I find out

2) Question word

ubi- where, quo- to where, unde- from where, quando- when, cur- why

quis- who, quid- qhat, quo modo- how, quot- how many, quotiens- how often

3)Imperfect (faceret), Pluperfect (discessissent) Subjuntive.

me rogavit num reginam emquam vidissem- he asked me whether i had seen the queen.

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Purpose Clauses

Ut+ imperfect Sunjunctive

= in order to

   so that


ut vidiremus= so that we could see

ne audirent= so that they wouldnt hear

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ND= what were looking for!

English Gerundives: Agenda= things that must be done

translate a gerundive must.

mihi currendum est= i must run.

servis festinandum est= the slaves must hurry.

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Indirect Command

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Antonia Loizou


This was really useful, thanks!

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