Cases Of Nouns
1 2 3 4
Nom a us rex
Acc am um regem
Gen ae i regis
Dat ae o regi
Abl as o rege
Nom ae i reges
Acc as os reges
Gen arum orum regum
Dat is is regibus
Abl is is regibus
eg. amo, amas, amat, amamus, amatis, amant
1) Adjectives agree with their noun ie. they are the same gender, number and case.
2) The ending of a noun and adjective won't always be the same, even though they agree.
eg. ducem bonum
they will have different endings if they are diffferent declensions.
-I I loved
-ISTI You Loved
-IT He Loved
-IMUS We loved
-ISTIS You (pl) Loved
-ERUNT They Loved
Bam I was
Bas You were
Bat he was
Bamus We were
Batis You were
Bant They were
NB. the Imperfect expresses an ongoing action in the past, whereas the Perfect Indicative expresses a single action in the past.
ERAM I had
ERAS You Had
ERAT He had
ERAMUS We Had
ERATIS You had
ERANT They had
=To do something
Amare- To Love
Monere- To warn
Regere- To rule
Audire- To hear
This is the present active infinitive.
It is formed from a verb but works like an adjective, this means it needs to agree with whatever noun or pronoun it is qualifying.
It is a third declension word, so its endings are similar to see.
eg. servae in silvia amulantem viderunt.
=they saw the slave walking in the wood.
the present participle ammbulantem (NB, NT) is in the Accusative Singular and so therefore must agree with a noun in the Accusative Singular.
Perfect Active Participle
All perfect participles are passive except those of deponent vers which are active.
deponent= passive in form but active in meaning.
monitus- having been warned (PPP)
secutus-having followed (PAP)
examples: adeptus- having obtained
egressus- having gone out
ingressus- having gone in
regressu- having returned.
As we know cum+abl= with. but it also means "when". You can work out which meaning it is by looking at what follows.
cum+ subjuntive= when
the "subjuntice" is a part of the Latin verb that indicates we are in particular kind of clause. it is translated normally.
cum+ pluperfect subjunctice+ when I had.
eg. cum dixisset- when he had said
cum fugissent- when they had fled.
Amav issem = had loved
amare m = I was Loving
eg. cum audirent- when they were listening
cum Romae essemus- when we were in Rome.
1) verb of knowing, asking, wondering.
rogo- I ask
Cognosco- I find out
2) Question word
ubi- where, quo- to where, unde- from where, quando- when, cur- why
quis- who, quid- qhat, quo modo- how, quot- how many, quotiens- how often
3)Imperfect (faceret), Pluperfect (discessissent) Subjuntive.
me rogavit num reginam emquam vidissem- he asked me whether i had seen the queen.
Ut+ imperfect Sunjunctive
= in order to
ut vidiremus= so that we could see
ne audirent= so that they wouldnt hear
ND= what were looking for!
English Gerundives: Agenda= things that must be done
translate a gerundive must.
mihi currendum est= i must run.
servis festinandum est= the slaves must hurry.