Grammar

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  • Created by: Bekka
  • Created on: 19-04-13 15:57

Nouns

Noun=the name of a person, place, thing or idea. Example-cottage

Proper noun=names of people of places. Example-London

Abstract noun=states, feelings and concepts that have no physical existence. Example-pain

Concrete noun=objects that have a physical existence. Example-countable: table, non-countable: furniture

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Verbs

Verbs=shows actions, events or states of being, feeling or thinking. Example-seems.

Material verbs=describe actions or events. Examples-hit, run, read, paint.

Relational verbs=describe states of being or are used to identify. Examples-be, appear, become.

Mental verbs=describe perception, thought or speech. Examples-think, speak,love.

Dynamic verb processes=processes where there is a change in state over time, Examples-remove, eat.

Stative verb processes=processes where the situation remains constant. Example-hold.

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Word Classes

Adjective=adds detail to nouns. Example-bleak.

Adverb=adds detail to verbs or other adverbs. Example-extraordinarily.

Determiner=positioned in front of nouns to add detail or to clarify. Examples=the, a, an.

Conjunction=links words. phrases and clauses together.Examples-and, but, or, although, because.

Preposition=shows relation in terms of time or place. Examples-in, at, by, on.

Pronoun=replaces nouns and can also refer forwards and backwards to them in longer strechtes of text. Examples-I, me, you, his, our.


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Pronouns

Personal=singluar, 1st person=I, me, my. 2nd person=you, your. 3rd person=he/she, him/her, his/her. Plural, 1st person=we, us, our. 2nd person=you, your. 3rd person=they, them, their.

Possessive=my, his, our, their.

Reflexive=myself, himself, themselves.

Demonstrative=this, these, that, those.

Relative=who, whom, which.

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Lexical Connectors

Addition=and, also, too, in addition, furthermore.

Consequence=so, therefore, thus, as a result, consequently.

Comparative=similarly, likewise, just as, as well, also, but, however, whereas, and yet, on the contrary, on the other hand.

Temporal=later, next, now, soon, afterwards.

Enumeration=firstly, then, finally.

Summative=in conclusion, on the whole, with all things considered.

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Sentence stuff

Simple sentence=a sentence consisting of a single main clause.

Complex sentence=a sentence containing a main clause with one or more subordinate or dependent clauses, often connected with a subordinating conjunction.

Compound sentence=a sentence containing two or more main clauses, connected by coordinating conjunctions or sometime just punctuation.

Minor sentence=a gramatically incomplete sentence.

Compound-Complex sentence=a sentence containing at least two main clauses and at least one subordinate clause.

Subordinating conjunctions=link a main clause to a number of subordinate clauses in complex sentences. Examples-after, when, while, despite, because, although, as.

Co-ordinating conjunctions=link clauses to form compound sentences. Examples-For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So.

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Sentence Functions

Declarative sentence=sentences that form a statement.

Interrogative sentence=sentences that form a question.

Imperative sentence=sentences that make a command or request.

Exclamatory sentence=sentences that show powerful emotions or feelings.

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