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Wh- questions

Wh-questions begin with what, when, where, who, whom, which, whose,why and how. We use them to ask for information. The answer cannot be yes or no:

Forming wh-questions

With an auxiliary verb

We usually form wh-questions with wh- + an auxiliary verb (be, do orhave) + subject + main verb or with wh- + a modal verb + subject + main verb:

Be: When are you leaving?

Who’s been paying the bills?

Do: Where do they live?

Why didn’t you call me?



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The or no article

No article, or zero article as it is usually called, is definitely a form of article. We use zero article with plural and uncountable nouns when we are referring to things in general:

  Tennis is a beautiful game.  

French chefs make the best cooks.  

Cheese in France is usually made from cows' or goats' milk.  

But note, when we want to be specific, the definite article is needed:

  The tennis played by Maria Sharapova at Wimbledon this year was awesome.  

The French chef at La Caprice is one of the best in the south east.

  I'm still eating the cheese I bought in France last month. 

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Mustn't or don't have to

Don't have to = Do not have to

We use don't have to to say that there is no obligation or necessity to do something.For example: "You don't have to do the exercises at the end of this page."

Mustn't = must not

We use mustn't to show that something is not allowed. When you use mustn't you are telling people not to do something. It has the same force as don't , as in: Don't do that!

For example: "You mustn't drink if you're going to drive."

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Present perfect

We use the present perfect tense:

  • for something that started in the past and continues in the present:

They’ve been married for nearly fifty years.
She has lived in Liverpool all her life.

Note: We normally use the present perfect continuous for this:

It’s been raining for hours.

  •  for something we have done several times in the past and continue to do:

I’ve played the guitar ever since I was a teenager.
He has written three books and he is working on another one.
I’ve been watching that programme every week.

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Past simple

We use the past tense to talk about:

  • something that happened once in the past:

met my wife in 1983.
We went to Spain for our holidays.
They got home very late last night.

  • something that was true for some time in the past:

lived abroad for ten years.
He enjoyed being a student.
She played a lot of tennis when she was younger.

  • we often use phrases with ago with the past tense:

met my wife a long time ago.

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How to create a great story (100 words)


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General revision

Clothes, items of clothing (UNIT 14)


Shopping and free time (UNIT 16)

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Summer 2016 exam


Writing sentences 

Choosing the correct tense

Deciding on the future tense to use


A 100-word story. You must begin with the underlined sentence.


Short adverts/ signs and two longer readings. A gap-fill.


4 short recordings, completed in class the week before the rest of the exam.

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