Government of Outremer

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 17-02-20 09:31

Baldwin I

  • Brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, who became Lord Protector from 1099-1100.
  • Managed to defeat Duqaq of Damascus on his march to claim the throne.
  • Finished conquering coastal towns- only Jaffa and Haifa recognised Jerusalem's authority and neither had a natuaral harbour. The Pilgrim roads also needed to be protected.
  • He took Arsuf, Caesarea, Acre, Beirut and Sidon- but not Tyre or Ascalon
  • He used alliances with the Genoese to conquer more land for a third of its booty.
  • He persauded al-Afdal, emir of Asclaon, to pledge loyalty to him to stop Egypt and Syria uniting through Ascalon. He created a demilitarised zone bewteen Jerusalem and Damascus in 1109.
  • Desposed Daibert of Pisa as patriarch of Jerusalem for Arnulf of Chocques, who was loyal. 
  • He kept authority with the crown, unlike in Europe.
  • He kept important feifs for the royal demense and divided fiefs such as Galilee.
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  • Started building castles such as Montreal in 1115.
  • 1101: Ramla 1, won despite inferior numbers using a releif force.
  • 1102: Ramla 2, lost initially, sacrificed his army to escape but won with reinforcements.
  • 1105: Ramla 3, first united Fatmid and Turk assult on Jaffa, won due to Egypt's poor discipline.
  • 1113: Turkish coalition, Mosul and Damascus. Baldwin attacked before Antioch and Edessa could help, He was defeated and had to retreat until they arrived. 
  • The Muslims left after they were unable to bring the Franks out of their defensive position.
  • Tancred took Latakia and the plains of Cicilia.
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  • Tancred was regent after Bohemond's capture in 1101.
  • Did not pay his ransom, but when Baldwin of Edessa freed Bohemond Tancred was forced to give up everything. 
  • 1104, Battle of Harran against Aleppo. First major defeat for the Latins. 
  • Antioch was attacked by Byzantium, who retook Cilicia and Latakia.
  • Bohemond went to the west for an army and Tancred was regent.
  • Artah, he beat Ridwan of Aleppo, and he retook Cilicia and Latakia.
  • However, Baldwin made him swear alleigance. 
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  • Baldwin protected the North in 1110, 1111 and 1115
  • Antioch and Tripoli protected Palestine in 1113.
  • Baldwin II acted as Bohemond II's regent after the field of Blood in 1119.
  • He was captured every year for seven years by Belek of Aleppo.
  • Fulk intervened in Antioch as well in 1132 and 1133.
  • Baldwin III went to try and save Edessa in 1149.
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Baldwin II

  • 1118, B1 named Eustace of Boulogne his brother as heir. 
  • Since B2 was in Jerusalem, he gained Joscelin of Courtney and Arnulf's support and was crowned instead. Instability from the start. 
  • Led 19 campaigns in 13 years and created papal endorsement for the Templars at Troyes.
  • 1119, Field of Blood, had to be Bohemond II's regent in Antioch. 
  • Faced rebellion in 1123 when some barons wanted him replaced with Charles of Flanders.
  • Sucession crisis since he had daughters, named Melisende and Fulk and B3 as rulers.
  • The patriarch wanted Jaffa but B2 said no. He also used favouritism.
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King Fulk

  • 1131, ascended the throne.
  • Two factions in Jerusalem- the royal Montlhery family and the Angevins (Fulk)
  • Fulk promoted his friends and sidelined Melisende, rebellion in 1134.
  • Hugh of Jaffa rumoured to be with the Queen and jealous of the Angevins.
  • Fulk invaded Jaffa and Hugh's vassals left him- he surrendered.
  • He had three years in exile but he was assasinated on the way (Fulk?)
  • Fulk hugely unpopular, church angry at him. Had to give Melisende more power.
  • Jaffa was confiscated and castles were built. 
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Melisende and Baldwin III

  • She refused to give up power when BIII grew up. 
  • Her cousin, Manasses of Hierges and her son, Amalric supported her.
  • Instability, civil war when she refused half a kingdom.
  • BIII invaded her in Jerusalem then she was forced back to Nablus. 
  • He captured Ascalon after building a castle at Gaza between Syria and Egypt.
  • Provided clear succession line to Almaric after his death.
  • 1149, Inab, BIII had to save Antioch after Prince Raymond's death.
  • 2nd crusade during his reign, Edessa lost but a Byzantine alliance.
  • Restored stability after Raymond II of Tripoli was murderd in 1152.
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  • Became king in 1163 easily. 
  • Nur al-Din was in control of Syria, so they had to expand to Egypt. 
  • 1163, Shawar was the vizier, and he was overthrown by Dirgham. 
  • Almaric attacked Egypt saying they did not pay tribute from BI's time.
  • This failed, but Shawar begged Nur al-Din to send an army to restore him.
  • Nur al-Din's general Shirkuh invaded Dirgham (with Amalric) in 1164 and restored Shawar.
  • Shawar, however, expelled General Shirkuh and allied with Amalric. 
  • 1167, treaty between Amalric and Shawar, 1168 invaded with Emperor Manuel.
  • Shrikuh and Nur al-Din gained full control of Egypt, Shirkuh became vizier then Saladin.
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  • 1174, his government divided. His regent Miles of Plancy was murdered.
  • Leadership of the king crucial- he could not fight, command, or produce an hier.
  • Divided between his half sisters Sybil and Isabella.
  • Regent 1- Raymond of Tripoli, defensive. Regent 2- Reynald of Chatillon, offensive.
  • Sybilla was the elder and had a son BV, competed over since her husband William de Montferarat was dead. She married Guy de Lusignan.
  • Sybil was supported by BIV's mother, Agnes of Courtney, Joselin III, Patriarch Heraclitus and Gerard of Rideford (Master of the Temple)
  • Isabella was supported by the Ibelins, Raymond III of Tripoli and Bohemond III of Antioch.
  • Raymond III invaded to try and make Sybil marry Balian of Ibelin, but she married Guy,
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  • Guy was subject to Richard I and a defensive leader in 1183.
  • 1187, in Hattin he was annhialted since he did not want to be criticised again.
  • BV died in 1186 and Sybil became Queen- she chose Guy as king.
  • Raymond III tried to crown Isabel and Humphrey but Humphrey declined.
  • Raymond of Tripoli made a truce with Saladin which let him move to Hattin.
  • 1187, Reynald attacked a Muslim caravan and Guy could not make him return the goods.
  • Saladin attacked Kerak and Montreal then Tiberias (Raymond's town).
  • Guy did not listen to Raymond and took his army to Hattin, which led to the fall ofJerusalem. 
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