- Created by: mrevv
- Created on: 17-02-20 09:31
- Brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, who became Lord Protector from 1099-1100.
- Managed to defeat Duqaq of Damascus on his march to claim the throne.
- Finished conquering coastal towns- only Jaffa and Haifa recognised Jerusalem's authority and neither had a natuaral harbour. The Pilgrim roads also needed to be protected.
- He took Arsuf, Caesarea, Acre, Beirut and Sidon- but not Tyre or Ascalon
- He used alliances with the Genoese to conquer more land for a third of its booty.
- He persauded al-Afdal, emir of Asclaon, to pledge loyalty to him to stop Egypt and Syria uniting through Ascalon. He created a demilitarised zone bewteen Jerusalem and Damascus in 1109.
- Desposed Daibert of Pisa as patriarch of Jerusalem for Arnulf of Chocques, who was loyal.
- He kept authority with the crown, unlike in Europe.
- He kept important feifs for the royal demense and divided fiefs such as Galilee.
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- Started building castles such as Montreal in 1115.
- 1101: Ramla 1, won despite inferior numbers using a releif force.
- 1102: Ramla 2, lost initially, sacrificed his army to escape but won with reinforcements.
- 1105: Ramla 3, first united Fatmid and Turk assult on Jaffa, won due to Egypt's poor discipline.
- 1113: Turkish coalition, Mosul and Damascus. Baldwin attacked before Antioch and Edessa could help, He was defeated and had to retreat until they arrived.
- The Muslims left after they were unable to bring the Franks out of their defensive position.
- Tancred took Latakia and the plains of Cicilia.
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- Tancred was regent after Bohemond's capture in 1101.
- Did not pay his ransom, but when Baldwin of Edessa freed Bohemond Tancred was forced to give up everything.
- 1104, Battle of Harran against Aleppo. First major defeat for the Latins.
- Antioch was attacked by Byzantium, who retook Cilicia and Latakia.
- Bohemond went to the west for an army and Tancred was regent.
- Artah, he beat Ridwan of Aleppo, and he retook Cilicia and Latakia.
- However, Baldwin made him swear alleigance.
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- Baldwin protected the North in 1110, 1111 and 1115
- Antioch and Tripoli protected Palestine in 1113.
- Baldwin II acted as Bohemond II's regent after the field of Blood in 1119.
- He was captured every year for seven years by Belek of Aleppo.
- Fulk intervened in Antioch as well in 1132 and 1133.
- Baldwin III went to try and save Edessa in 1149.
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- 1118, B1 named Eustace of Boulogne his brother as heir.
- Since B2 was in Jerusalem, he gained Joscelin of Courtney and Arnulf's support and was crowned instead. Instability from the start.
- Led 19 campaigns in 13 years and created papal endorsement for the Templars at Troyes.
- 1119, Field of Blood, had to be Bohemond II's regent in Antioch.
- Faced rebellion in 1123 when some barons wanted him replaced with Charles of Flanders.
- Sucession crisis since he had daughters, named Melisende and Fulk and B3 as rulers.
- The patriarch wanted Jaffa but B2 said no. He also used favouritism.
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- 1131, ascended the throne.
- Two factions in Jerusalem- the royal Montlhery family and the Angevins (Fulk)
- Fulk promoted his friends and sidelined Melisende, rebellion in 1134.
- Hugh of Jaffa rumoured to be with the Queen and jealous of the Angevins.
- Fulk invaded Jaffa and Hugh's vassals left him- he surrendered.
- He had three years in exile but he was assasinated on the way (Fulk?)
- Fulk hugely unpopular, church angry at him. Had to give Melisende more power.
- Jaffa was confiscated and castles were built.
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Melisende and Baldwin III
- She refused to give up power when BIII grew up.
- Her cousin, Manasses of Hierges and her son, Amalric supported her.
- Instability, civil war when she refused half a kingdom.
- BIII invaded her in Jerusalem then she was forced back to Nablus.
- He captured Ascalon after building a castle at Gaza between Syria and Egypt.
- Provided clear succession line to Almaric after his death.
- 1149, Inab, BIII had to save Antioch after Prince Raymond's death.
- 2nd crusade during his reign, Edessa lost but a Byzantine alliance.
- Restored stability after Raymond II of Tripoli was murderd in 1152.
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- Became king in 1163 easily.
- Nur al-Din was in control of Syria, so they had to expand to Egypt.
- 1163, Shawar was the vizier, and he was overthrown by Dirgham.
- Almaric attacked Egypt saying they did not pay tribute from BI's time.
- This failed, but Shawar begged Nur al-Din to send an army to restore him.
- Nur al-Din's general Shirkuh invaded Dirgham (with Amalric) in 1164 and restored Shawar.
- Shawar, however, expelled General Shirkuh and allied with Amalric.
- 1167, treaty between Amalric and Shawar, 1168 invaded with Emperor Manuel.
- Shrikuh and Nur al-Din gained full control of Egypt, Shirkuh became vizier then Saladin.
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- 1174, his government divided. His regent Miles of Plancy was murdered.
- Leadership of the king crucial- he could not fight, command, or produce an hier.
- Divided between his half sisters Sybil and Isabella.
- Regent 1- Raymond of Tripoli, defensive. Regent 2- Reynald of Chatillon, offensive.
- Sybilla was the elder and had a son BV, competed over since her husband William de Montferarat was dead. She married Guy de Lusignan.
- Sybil was supported by BIV's mother, Agnes of Courtney, Joselin III, Patriarch Heraclitus and Gerard of Rideford (Master of the Temple)
- Isabella was supported by the Ibelins, Raymond III of Tripoli and Bohemond III of Antioch.
- Raymond III invaded to try and make Sybil marry Balian of Ibelin, but she married Guy,
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- Guy was subject to Richard I and a defensive leader in 1183.
- 1187, in Hattin he was annhialted since he did not want to be criticised again.
- BV died in 1186 and Sybil became Queen- she chose Guy as king.
- Raymond III tried to crown Isabel and Humphrey but Humphrey declined.
- Raymond of Tripoli made a truce with Saladin which let him move to Hattin.
- 1187, Reynald attacked a Muslim caravan and Guy could not make him return the goods.
- Saladin attacked Kerak and Montreal then Tiberias (Raymond's town).
- Guy did not listen to Raymond and took his army to Hattin, which led to the fall ofJerusalem.
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