Government across all reigns.

what were the features of Henry VII's government?

-ROYAL COUNCIL -responsible for day to day running, had small membership, used frequently

-COUNCIL LEARNED IN LAW -debt collector, managed/pursued feudal rights -led by DUDLEY + EMPSOM-> hated, executed in 1510

-COURT OF THE STAR CHMABER- created by act in 1487 -> prosecuted anyone behaved rebelliously -little use was made of this because Henry used finance $$$ control subjects

-PARLIAMENT- met infrequently - 7X during reign -king ruled by decree -only called to serve interest of king e.g. support controversial policies

-LOCAL GOVERNMENT- most distant from London = difficult control -relied on JP's/Nobility -> responsible for public order -no attempts make system local gov = UNEVEN CONTROL

-ROYAL HOUSEHOLD-personal monarchy -servants chosen by king -PRIVY CHAMBER-kept $$$ + business in private rooms -created under Henry

-NOBILITY- increased control+suspicion -attainder, bonds and recognisances -retaining - licence in 1504 -138 B+R's passed

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what were the features of Henry VIII's government?

LOCAL GOVERNMENT -continued use JP's -creation of LORD LIEUTENANTS to muster up militia

PRIVY CHAMBER -increased use + importance -had its own separate existence

PARLIAMENT -relied on trusted advisors, WOLSEY + CROMWELL run day to day gov -had no interest in day to day unglamorous affairs -encouraged talented admin from outside nobility

NOBILITY -different attitude reversed 175 Bonds +recognisances

-still suspicious rivals in nobility = 1513 demanded DE LA POLE execution

WOLSEY'S REFORMS - tackle slow + unfair delivery of justice -strengthened STAR CHAMBER increased to 120/year -friend of poor-> championed enclosure -COURT OF REQUESTS - hear cases from poor people

CROMWELL'S S REFORMS - court of augmentations->controlled land and finances before under the Catholic church -court of first fruits and tenths-> collected money previously from rome -court of wards-> collected money from minor's whose estates he controlled -increased use of parliament for reformation -increased use PRIVY CHAMBER

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was there a revolution in tudor government in the

yes:

-extension royal authority over Wales -HENRY became head of church and state

*king in parliament - due to legislating for reformation

-PRIVY COUNCIL -used as a smaller body of gov

*CROMWELL+WOLSEY = oversaw gov unlike Henry VII who had big involvement in day to day government + professionals used vs untrained nobility

-development specialised departments e.g. STAR CHAMBER

*Court of Augmentations *Court of General Surveyors *First Fruits + Tenths *Court of Wards

NO:

-Crown already had influence over church appointments + tax

*parliament developed as Henry needed support

-gov remained personal as seen from Henry's dismissal ministers

*CHANGES WERE REACTIONARY

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what was Edward's government like?

-too young to rule so ruled by protectorate but by early teens, had influence

-SOMERSET- lord protector- good duke -implement social reforms -had support for moderate reform but blocked conservative

-authoritarian -promoted own supporters

-NORTHUMBERLAND- feb 1550 - lord president of the council -> ruled through PRIVY COUNCIL -serious unrest so Northumberlands policies different

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government under mary

-argued a quiet strengthening of government taking place behind the scenes

-role of privy council managing day to day gov = more established ->commitees to deal w issues

-royal commission in 1552= revenue collection easier

-revival of naval militia w 1558 militia act = return to fleet level of hnery VIII's reign

-ROYAL HOUSEHOLD- decreased- leading male gov couldn't frequent household as immoral

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Elizabeth's government

-ROLE OF COURT- hub social/political life -nobility went court gain titles by flattery e.g. DUDLEY

-employed 1500

-PATRONAGE- astute use to a wide circle -stop plots against herself

-grant of MONOPOLIES (sole ownership of items to sell) = unpopular - prevented competition

-less nobles than in 1558

-PRIVY COUNCIL- nobility reduced, core professional served long periods e.g. cecil

-admin public policy + advice

-1590's increased workload to 6/week

-still personal monarchy wasn't easily swayed e.g. marriage + succession BUT could sway her e.g. Cecil threat of resignation = intervention in Scotland

-1570's -GUY- reshaping of inner circle of 8 minsters

-LOCAL GOVERNMENT -JP'S -> continuity from VII -continued expand -50 JP's by 1600 -responsibility for poor law

-LORD LIEUTENANTS -responsible raising local militia -additional duties -1560-> LORD DEPUTY- intro share workload

PROBLEMS WEAKENED GOV -

*trusted ministers die in quick succession - replaced by sons who lacked fathers abilities e.g. Robert Cecil

*promoting Robert cecil = factionalism from ESSEX

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what were Elizabeth's relations with her parliamen

GROWING CONFLICT BETWEEN CROWN + PARLIAMENT -by end reign 1/2 MP's uni + lawyers = self confident + wiling argue -1566 - anger over discussing succession -1563-6 - PURITAN CHOIR - 40 pressure to further reform to Protestantism -1601 - clash over monopolies -MP's refuse grant additional taxes for war against Spain unless monopoly solved

NO GROWING CONFLICT BETWEEN CROWN AND PARLIAMENT:-parliament called 13 x during reign -mainly ruled via privy council -Elizabeth could stop progress via veto-resisted all attempts by parliament on marriage +succession -PURITAN CHOIR -not united or powerful -used parliament for money, almost always got -HOC -mundane tasks =outlet for local grievances

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