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  • Created by: J.E.C.
  • Created on: 14-10-13 18:06


> Glycolysis is the intial stage of both aerobic and anerobic respiration

> Occurs in the cytoplasm of all living cells 

> Process by which a 6-carbon sugar (usually glucose) is converted into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules

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Activation of glucose by phosphorylation

> Glucose is made more reactive by adding two phosphate molecules (phosphorylation)

> The phosphate molecules come from the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules to ADP

> This provides the energy to activate glucose (lowers the activation enthalpy for the enzyme-controlled reactions that follow)

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Splitting of the phosphorylated glucose

> Each glucose molecule is split into two 3-carbon molecules > triose phosphate (TP)

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Oxidation of triose Phosphate

> Hydrogen is removed from each of the 2 TP molecules and transferred to a hydrogen-carrier molecule, known as NAD to form reduced NAD

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The production of ATP

> Enzyme-controlled reactions convert each TP into another 3-carbon compound called pyruvate.

> In the process, two molecules of ATP are regenerated from ADP

> Remember, for each glucose molecule at the start of the process, two molecules of TP are produced 

> Therefore yields must be doubled, so 4 ATP and 2 molecules of reduced NAD

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