Glycolysis

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Phosphorylation

  • ATP molecule is hydrolysed. The phosphate group that's released is attached to the glucose molecule at carbon 6.
  • Glucose 6 phosphate is changed to fructose 6-phosphate.
  • More ATP is hydrolysed. The phosphate group that's released is attached to the fructose 6-phosphate at carbon 1.
  • Hexose sugar is activated, > fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
  • Energy from the hydrolysed ATP molecules activates the hexose sugar.
  • This stage used 2 molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule.
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Splitting of hexose 1,6-bisphosphate

  • Each molecule is split into 2 molecules of triose phosphate (3-carbon sugar molecules each with one phosphate group attached.)
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Oxidation of triose phosphate

  • 2 hydrogen atoms are removed from each triose phosphate molecule.
  • NAD combines with the hydrogen atoms to form rNAD.
  • 2 molecules of NAD are reduced per glucose molecule.
  • 2 molecules of ATP are formed.
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Conversion of triose phosphate to pyruvate

  • 4 enzyme-catalysed reactions convert each triose phosphate molecule to a molecule of pyruvate.
  • Pyruvate is a 3-carbon compound.
  • 2 molecules of ADP are phosphorylated to 2 molecules of ATP.
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