Context within work, genre
- A Gloria is a section of a mass, but Vivaldi has only set the Gloria for this work, dividing the text into 11 elements.
- It's the opening section/movement.
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Text and Text Setting
- "Glory to be God in the highest": the text is extremely joyful and the music reflects this.
- Homophonic vocal textures reflect the joy, its powerful.
- Syllabic setting.
- Buoyant rhythms, octave leaps.
- Major key
- Constant quaver movement (especially in the bass line)
- Short phrase, punchy. Makes it declamatory.
- General word setting rather than specific word painting
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Melody and Rhythm
- Instrumental tutti (intro) introduces main melodic ideas.
- Start with 1st melodic idea: buoyant octave leap in lively quaver movement.
- 2nd idea is conjuct melody.
- Lines in orchestral parts are more memorable and interesting than vocal lines.
- The end of the tutti using falling sequences, typical of Vivalidi.
- Quaver rhythms in the orchestra throughout keep it lively.
- The 1st vocal entry uses lively dotted rhythms, makes it sound military and purposeful.
- Uses repeated nptes in 1st vocal entry. Very short phrases initially. Phrases get longer. At the beginning, phrases are conjunct.
- There's a rising sequence to B minor (Relative minor)
- In the middle, phrases become longer with semibreve rhythms and more chromatic movement is present.
- Throughout the rest, the melody lines are diatonic.
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Tonality and Harmony
- Starts in D major. Very bright and well suited to the stringed instruments. The open strings resonate.
- 8 bars at the beginning in D to establish the key.
- Chain of suspensions in descending sequence. It's a clash that resolves.
- Chord I when voices come in, then move to chord V. Alternating between them.
- Modulates to B minor.
- Changed key to C# minor in bar 48.
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- Bar 1: Octaves
- Bars 2: Homophonic
- Alternating between different groups
- Antiphonal exchanges between strings and oboes and trumpets
- Choral writing mainly homophonic
- Imitation before end
- Choir and orchestra also antiphonal at beginning.
- Few interjections from orchestra.
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Writing for instruments and relationships between
- Basso Continuo: organ, strings, trumpet and oboe.
- Basso and Strings have the bulk of the Orchestral accompaniment.
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- Short movement
- Setting of text provides structure.
- Motific ideas in Orchestra provide continuity.
- Idea 1 repeated in bass - octave jump
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- Pedal Note
- Terraced dynamics
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