McLauhan- describes the 'global village' which is in reference to how the electronic mass media, TV and internet collapse boundaries of human communication, and how people from around the world can interact with eachother on a GLOBAL scale.
Many people are now exposed to the same information globally- this is known as globalisation, which has lead to a globalised popular culture.
Popular culture- ordinary, masses, uncritical, entertaining, inferior, passive 'dumbing down audiences', The Sun, Daily Mail, aimed at making only profits- nothing intellectually stimulating, or thought provoking- now spread in globalised forms.
High Culture- Set apart and is 'special', respectful, has lasting value and are mainly aimed at U/C, M/C peopele who have 'good taste', thy include 'serious', thought provoking content- literature e.g. includes Bronte, Shakespheare, Hemmingway, Shelly etc
High and Popular
Blurring of boundaries- Post Modernists argue the boundaries between HC and PC are weakening, the global access to contemporary media and easier intl. transportation have made a range of media and cultural products accesible to all. There has been an expansion of culture based products and industry, including advertisiting, film, music, web- which makes the distinction meaningless.
Strinati- elements of HC have become apart of PC and elements of PC have become apart of HC- so theres no real difference between them.
Giddings- forms of HC are now used as products for mass pop culture market- e.g pop culture actors playing Shakesphare plays.This is because technology has made it possible for mass audiences to see and study high culture- e.g. Van Gogh on T-shirts. Classical music- preached to mass culture audiences.
Evaluation- pop culture is often attacked and stigmatised ofr divertising people away from more useful activities, and for having harmful effects on audiences.
Marxists- mass culture as simply mass producted manufactured products imposed on the masses by global media businesses for financial profit. It's a form of social control- gives an impression of choice between dumed down trivial, uncrticial infotainment, and gives fantasy- keeping hegemony and making consumers uncriticual and passive- so they will not challenge dominant ideas.
Rejection- Strinati- there is wide diversity and choice in PC which people select and critically respond to. Livingstone- writers and producers of TV soap operas- which are popular culture watched by millions do deal with serious issues which present a range of poitical opinions, generating public discussion- contemporary soaps like Eastenders and Hollyoaks, have generated widespread critical discussion about issues that otherwise may get rarely talked about in the public e.g. child ****, incest, lesbianism, domestic violence etc.
A global popular culture
Flew- evolution of new media tech like TV and interent- has played an important role in developing a global popular culture.
Cultural homogenisation- globalisation has undermined local cultures, as the same products are sold to consumers globally, and have become ways of life for many different countries- making them more alike. Advances in technnology mean todays global conglomerates act in a global market.They are breaking down cultural barriers-so popular culture extends boundaries of nation states with same cultural products sold across the globe.
Sklair- the largely American based media spread news, information, ideas, popular culture to a global market- the media blur differences between in, entertainment, products- sell ideas across the worlds which are mainly Westerm- createing a 'culture ideology of consumerism'- e.g its Apple and Google that have dominated the growth of the internet which spreads Western ideas. People- as a result are inspired by this media culture industry by watching the same TV shows, music etc.
Ritzer- companies now operate on a global scale- which promote a global culture and weaken local cultures. E.g. Mc'ds, applie, google, samsug use transnational mm to promote products. TV sell products globally-e.g. Millionaire, fear factor etc
Imperialism, pluralists, marxists
Cultural and media imperialism- Fenton's idea that the media led global culture ideology of cosumerism has lead to Western products nad cultural values being forced on non western cultures, undermining local cultures. E.g. cocolanisation, mcdonalisation.
Pluralists- no such thing as pop culture- the internet, TV, radio offer a huge range of media products- giving consumers across the world a wide viderstiy of cultural choices.
Tomlinson- there is a HYBRIDISATION of cultures, people pic n mix and draw on both western and their local cultures- increased choice promotes different cultural styles around the world where they merge into a new hybrid culture. New media enables people to create and distribute own media produts. Even if they are spreading western ideas, not everyone will take it on.
Marxists- globalising pop culture benifits the owners- who gain a lot of profit.
Thussu- globalisation of TV and competition between media conglomerates for audiences has led to TV news becoming tablodised and more like entertainment- 'global infotainment;- entertain and inform. It's US style reporting, diverts attention away from serious issues like how native culture is being destroyed. Global media, have led to less choice because of the few 'lords of the global village' who give dumbed down content. Local media is unable to compete .
Post modernist views
Diveristy of the globalised media offering the world population more choice in terms of their consumption patterns and lifestyles- opens up greater global awareness and acess to a diversity of cultures bringing them more oppurtunities to make theri own idenities WHICH ARE NOT LIMITED BY LOCAL CULTURE.
Baudrillard- we now live in a media saturated society, the media dominate and distort the what we see the orld- so the media replace the reaility of war and construct it as if its something to gaze at, they have an air of unreality about them- so its hard to tell the different between image and reality- it appears like Hollyowood movies. This is known as hyper reality- where the appereance is everything- and thus the media presents- simulacra- artificial images of real life events which have no relation to the actual world. PM- we no longer reflect reality but we actively create it. Garrod- reality TV programmes and social networking sights are bluring the distrinction between reality and hyper reality- leaves us confused between what is real and not.
Strinati- emphasies the importance of mass media is shaping consumer choices- pop culture bombards us daily and form our sense of reality & dominate the way we define ourselves. In this MS society- mm create desites and pressures to consume, many of us actually define ourselves and how we want to be seen in terms of media imagery- colour form etc are seen as more important than content.
Criticsms of post modernist views
Don't acknowledge other factors shaping identity like age,disability, social class
Many people in the poorest parts of the globe do not have acess to the new media and can not afford to construct identity.
Marxists- choice is a myth.