Globalisation and Crime

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What is Global Crime?

Castells (1998) 

  • global criminal economy of £1 trillion per year
  • this includes; arms trafficking, smuggling illegal immigrants, trafficking of people, body part trafficking and the drugs trade

crime is a global issue as travel is easier and cheaper and there are international connections

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Global Risk Consciousness

  • fear of crime
  • much knowledge comes from the media 
  • e.g. moral panic in regards to immigration
  • negative portrayal of immigrants has led to toughened border patrik and legal limits on immigration

Taylor (1997)

  • crime is developing at both ends of the capitalist spectrum
  • transnational companies move to LEDCs, producing job insecurity, unemployment and poverty
  • deregulation means the government have little control 
  • poor turn to drug gangs
  • rich turn to tax avoidance and fruad
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Glocal Organisations

  • form both internation and local links
  • this is important in the drugs trade

Hobbs and Dunnigham 

  • form varies from place to place
  • globalisation change has led to different patterns in crime

McMafia - Glenny (2003)

  • refers to the organisations that emerged in Russia and Europe following the fall of communism
  • transnational organised crime started after the Social Union disolved
  • led to deregulation
  • sold cheap goods abroad 
  • capitalists turned to the mafia to protect their wealth 
  • purely economic organisations
  • vital in the new Russian Capitaist Society 
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Green Crime

Beck (1992)

  • the masssive increase in producitivity has led to new manufactured risks 
  • such risks are harming the enviornment and this has consequences on humans

Green Criminology 

  • most the time, no crime has been committed
  • more radical approach 
  • green criminology moves away from legal definitions and focuses on a global perspective of harm 
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Two Views of Harm - White (2008)


  • human centered view of enviornmental harm
  • assumes humans have a right to dominate nature for their own ends
  • puts economic growth before the environment 


  • humans and the environment are interdependent 
  • both humans and the environment are liable to exploitation 
  • in general, green criminology adopts this view 
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Two Types of Green Crime - South

Primary - crimes resulting directly from destruction and degradation of the earths resources

e.g. killing tigers for their skin

Secondary - crimes that flout the rules aimed at preventing or regulating environental disasters

e.g the profits made by TNCs in dumping toxic waste


  • recognises the growing importance of environmental issues 
  • only focuses on broader harm not legally defined crimes 
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