-Its a big part of how and why the world is changing and becoming a big global cummunity.
It is occuring at an increasing rate due to-
TNC- produce, sell or located in 2 or more countries.
-Some generate more money then countries GDP- shell and oil
-Bring new investors and new cultures- mc donals and westen fast foods.
-Main driving force behind globalisation.
IMPROVED CUMMUNICATIONS- transport and technology 'shrinking world'.
NEW MARKETS-western companys can sell to new markets such as china and india- buying and seeling stocks between new companys and markets.
INTERNATINAL ORGINISATION- bring people, money and info together. Such as the Wold bank,IMF and WTO-helps to reduce trade barriers and taxes.
Places can be put into groups as the world weath and power is not shared equally.
LEDC- group of 50 countiries that have very low incomes, helth, education rates, ecnomic instibility and heavey debt- MOZAMBIQUE.
-There income mostly due to agriculture- crops fail- DESASTERS. they only move out of this grouping when conditions improve- BOTSWANA.
NICs-Newly industrilised countries that arnt classified as compleatly developed.
-They have growing economeys and have reciently moved from agriculture to munufacturing and exporting.- use to be called AISAIN TIGERS but now SINGIPORE, HK, SK AND TIWAN are developed. No formal list of NICs.-CH and In
EX-SOVIET STATES-middle income countries- Solvet uniun= russia, central Aisa and Easten europe-now indipendent countries since the solvout colapsed-1991.
-Growing economomys( not as much as NICs)- recent growth through natural resources (oil in KAZAKSTAN).
OPEC-orginistion of petronium exporting countiries- 13 major oil exporters.- IRAN, ANGOLA AND INDONESIA.
-They controal aroud 2/3 of oil reserves.
-Large group can make sure fair prices are acheived-some have left as they wanted to produce more oil then OPEC allowed. GABON- others have joined.
OEDC- orginisation for economic cooporation and development- 30 riches and most powerful countries- tope 8 =G8.
G8 have over 60% of the worlds GDP and controal most militrey power.
-The meet to descuss possible solutions for social, economic and enviromental issues.
-The members are always changing.
-Groups of countries that make agreements to reduce there barriers of trade- by removing taxes/tariffs. the blocks icrease trade between members and they can work together as large orginisations.
BENIFITS TO BEING IN TRADE BLOCKS ARE-
ECONOMIE OF SCALE- increased sales as there is a larger market and it is easier to trade.- more sales mean more money and more produce.
COMPARITIVE ADVANTAGES-contries can consontrate on developing certain indistries- easier to trade with all different goods- countires can specilise in good and avoid others.
NAFTA- north american free trade organisation.
ARE TNCs GOOD OR BAD- they can reduce taxes and countries with in the block benifit but out of it still have to pay taxes.
TNCs create links between countries in different ways.-
MERGERS- 2 companys of similar sizes agree to become one bigger one-BP AND AMOCO to create better links between the two countries of operations.
ACQUISITION- one company buys another smaller company- ford and Volvo.
USING SUB CONTRACTORS- TNCs are can use foreign companys to manufacture product with out achilly owning them-NIKE.
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT- any investment that goves TNCs a long term interest in a countrie outside one they are in. HSBC- indonisia.
CRITICISMS OF TNCs INCLUDE- profit doesn't stay in the countrie it was generated in and goes back to the cpuntrie of orogin.
-One of the largest TNCS in the world.
-first opened in alaska is now al over the world in Brizil and japan. However was not succsessful in GERMANY as cound not compeate with LIDIL.
-Rebranded either ASDA or WAL-MART depending on the place.
WALMART HELPS TO ARTICULATE GLOBALISATION- flows of money, people, trade and info- also bring culture from it countrie of orogin the USA.
Even though it is a global brand it like to take a local approch and source locally.
SPACIAL DIVETION OF LABOUR- laour is split up and made in the most cost effectove place, it' workforce is sourced from all over the world.
ELECTRONIC GOODS- CHINA CLOTHINHG/GEORGE- INDIA AND UK.
diffrent pay across the globe- CHINA FACTORIES- $1 hour
USA FACTORIES-$6 MIN AN HOUR HEADQUOTORS USA$100,000.
SWITCHED ON AND OFF PLACES.
SWITCHED ON- most higly connected countries-as well as important citys in porrer countries such as SINAGPORE.
trade, money, people and info can move easily-global hubs as global network can flow through them.
energy usage and eco footprint is much bigger in switched on places as they are able to accsess good easier. CONSUMERS AND PRDUCERS.
SWITCHED OFF PLACES-worst connected cuntries- some remote wealthy places BHUTAN which is landlocked.
-Some money flow- often from AID. CASH CROPS but very little trade.
Pople in switched off places are not CONSUMERS or PRODUCERS no market for TNCs.
poor leader ship and civil unrest can lead to GLOBAL LOSERS which are switched off from global networks due to difficult ph
NEW GLOBAL NETWORKS DUE TO NEW TECHNOLOGY- internet, air travel create GLOBAL NETWORKS.
-LONG DISTANCE TELECOMUNICATIONS.
-CHEAP AIR TRAVEL.-EASY JET all these create a shrinking world.
PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCES CREATE GLOBAL WINNERS-
Places with useful resources that help them connect to global networks- COMPARITIVE ADVANTAGES as they are well connected so can trade easier.-creating a MULTIPLYER EFFECT
SOUDI ARABIA- oil rich- middel east- 1/2 GDP from oil-global connections- helps to keep the switched on- has coasts on 2 sides so oil can be shipped easily.
CHINA is a NIC- huge pop 1.3 billion- cheap bu relitivly skilled labour- rapid investment- cheap labour means costs are reduced and increased profit.
Consequences of globalisation
ECONOMIC-increased global trade
RICHER NATIONS - POSIITIVES- increased wealth- better education that attracts investments-highly paid job sector.
NEGITIVES- manual labour lossess meens loss of jobs due to deindustrilsation.
NICs-POSITIVES- increased wealth, attracts investment as they have large workforces and low wage demands.
NEGITIVES-the income gap between rich and poor widens-few wealthy many poor
moral and social consequesnces of globalisation
-dangerous poor paid work has been moved rather then stoped.
-NICs products are chap as poor working conditions low wages and explotation of workers- many feel richer nations should take responsibiity as the consumer.
GOOD MORAL CONSEQUENCES FROM GLOBALISATION-
-urban working conditions and quality of life better then rural areas
-Sweat shops are the first step towars a wealthy economy.
consequences of globalisation-
OIL POLLUTION-increased trade ans shipping - eco system damages.
DEFORISTATION- cash crops in tropical places- cut down the rain forest.
CARBON EMISSIONS- transported along way-pollution such as C02
WASTE- more acsess to products at cheaper prices- people are being more wastefull- throwing away clotes rather then mending them.
RECYCLING ISSUES- more recycling but waste can be transported along way brfore being recycled- paper from the UK to CHINA- global warming/GHG
Solutions to CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBALISATION-
GOVERMENT- carbon credits- koyoto protical and carbon limits
decorage deforestation and give more carbon credits for tree planting.
Starting distance transport- lables of where products come from- ecourage coustomers to buy loacl- using recycled matireal.
INDIVIDUALS- fair trade- buying local- recycle.
PUSH FACTORS- make people want to move out of the place they are in- they are negitive factors.
PULL FACTORS- positive factors that attract people to new places.
OBSTICALS- things that make it more difficult to move- cost.
OPPORTUNITYS- oppetunitys people incountor before they reach there end destination- Polish stop at irland not London.
MIGRATION RATE- diffrence between the number of migrant in (imigrants) and out(emegrants) per 100,000.
STAGE 1- high birth rates and death rates- pop remains stable but low.
-high infant mortality and hight birth rates and death rates.
STAGE 2-high birth rates, death rates fall- the pop increases rapidly.
STAGE 3- Birth rates fall ALOT but death rates fall ALITTLE- birthrates decline alittle while death rates fall slowly- the pop increases at a slower rate.
STAGE 4- low birthrates and low death rates-pop remains stable but high- MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. UK AND EUROPE.
STAGE 5- birth rates drop below death rates- birthrates decline wile death rates stay the same- JAPAN more elderly people.
MIGRATION CAN ALTER POPULATION STRUCTURE, WHICH CAN BE SEEN ON THE POPULATION PRYAMID. MIGRATION CAN AFFECT ANY PART OF THE POPULATION PRYMID- DESPITE THE AGE OF THE MIGRANTS.
Change in the UK's pop size since the 1900
FAMILY SIZE- fell during the early 20th c and increase in the mind 20th c. Baby boom after the war children- 2.46
9% of women in 1945 had no children- 1980's rose to 20%
Now there is a bulge of 60 year olds and 40-40s due to HBR in the 40s and 60s.
fewer 30 year old as decline in BR-70s and 90s.
NOW 1/5 are under 16 and 1/5 are over 60.
Life expectancy has increased from MEN-1900 50 NOW 77 AND WOMEN 81
uk pop change
MIGRATION AND ETHNICITY-
-After war imigrants from the soviet uniun
-50s-70- from india-pakastan-carabian.
-since 2004 many eatern eurapian countries join the EU- POLAND.
-This has changed the ethnic mix 15% of the pop are immigrants.
1million UK citizens class themselves as Indian.
Primary and secandry sector have decline in the last 100 years- 1900- 50% jobs were secandry 2001= 20%.
Merchanisation means machines can do humans jobs.
Improvments in ed mean rise in tertiary jobs(banking)-1900- 41% 2001-78%.
UKS POP CHANGE
The traditinal classes in the uk are-
UPPER MIDDLE CLASS- TITLES
MIDDLE CLASS- HIGHLY EDUCATIED
WORKING CLASS- LESS WELL EDUCATED.
It has been thought that classes have been changed- middle class grows as more poeple in higher education and increase in avrage wage.
Change in the UKs pop size by internal and externa
INTERNAL( happening in the UK)-
-FAMILY SIZE( fertility size) woman emansipation and legalisation of abortion int 1967.
-POPULATION STRUCTURE( life expectancy) the NHS- free health care mean people are living longer.
EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL STATUS- greater leveles of education mean changes in employment- more tertiry sectors- increased number of middle class
-MIGRATION- more jobs are created in the tertiary sector- SE of the UK loss of jobs in the secandry sector.
External factors for the UK pop change.
FMAILY SIZE- global recession people have less money and there for less children
GLOBAL CONFLICT- birthrates fell due to world wars- after there was a baby boom.
POPULATION STRUCTURE- decreese in dangerous jobs-jobs that cause poor health are in the decline= life expectancy has increased.
EMPLOYMENT-Loss of manufacturing to over seas- deindustrilsaton- cheaper labour.
MITIGATION-opon door policy- other EU members can live and work in the UK.-increased immigration to the UK.
local changes- photographs- cenceses-employment size- family size- ethnic background- geneology websites.
Young people( 0-14) + Old people (over 65)
DEPENDANCY RATION= working age pop 15-64
Social and economic impacts of an ageing populatio
-INCREASED PRESSURE ON PUBLIC SURVICES-hospitals, bus services and hospices. people need more care and there for more carers and nurses will be needed.
UNEQUAL DISTRABUTION OF OLD- such as EAST BOURN with the most old people in the UK- areas like this are catered for older and have inadiquate facilitys for young-bars and clubs.
POPULATION DECLINE- workers have fewer children and may have older dependance- decline in birth rates.
LONGER WORKING LIFE- state pention is low as so many retiered people- people work for longer with personal pentions.
AGEING POP- ECONOMIC IMPACTS
REDUCED WORK FORCE- a smaller proportion of working- slow economic growth.
INCREASED TAXES- pentions and survices are payed by taxes- more old people mean higher taxes.
SPENDING- the grey pound- old peoples money
THE UK AGEING POP-
LIFE EXPEXTANCY RISE- people are living longer.
BABY BOOM- lots of babys were born in the 40s and 60s these generations are starting to retieere- more OLD.
FALLING BIRTHRATES- fewer young so proportion of old is greater
PROBLEM INCLUDE- pressure on the pention system-elderly living in poverty-pressure on health services.
Different stratigies to manage the ageing pop- UK
AGE OF RETIERMENT- 65 MEN 60 WOMEN- 68 FOR ALL BY 2050.
ECORAGIING IMAGRATION OF WORKING AGE- poland 2004- 80% under 35.
ENCORAGE WOMEN TO HAVE MORE CHILDREN- dont lose out on pentions if they take breaks.
Different types of migrants
VOLUNTARY- want to move.
INVOLUNTARY- forced to move.
ASYLEM SEEKERS- at risk from war or persicution.
ILLIGAL IMAGRANTS- stay or enter a country without permision.
migration from the UKs formar colonies-
INDIA-60,000 by the mid 1950s.
CARABBIAN- 550,000 by 1948.
consequences of migration into europe.
DEMOGRAPHICS- changes the structure of the source and host contry.
more younger working migrants may increase birth rates around 25% of children born in 6006 has on migrant pearent.
ECONOMIC- remetances are sent back- the host counry loses out as the money is set away.
SOCIAL-illigal imigrants don't have accsess to employment, healthcare or benifits and may do dangerous work to get money.
CULTURAL- bring a new culture- ratial tention- hybrid culturals of music fashion- indian food is so popular in the UK they have some disses mad for the UK.
POLITICAL-changes in goverment has lead to a point based scheme- racial tention has lead to some natinalist political partys -BNP
ENVIRONMENTAL- travel by planes causes polution- lots of people travel long distances=CO2 emissions and GW.
Poland to the UK
WHY THE LEFT-
low avrage wages
low avalible houses
WHY THE CAME-
ease of migration- lesie fair.
good exchange rates.
plenty of better paid jobs.
UK TO SPAIN-
WHY THE LEFT-
uk cost of living is rising
WHY THE WENT TO SPAIN-
cheap transport- budget air lines.
technology- email and skype.
Rural urban migration-
rural-city. more the 50% of the worlds pop live in urban areas. 80% in the UK.
FACTORS CAUSING RURAL URBAN MIGRATION-
FOREGN INVESTMENT- TNCs in urban areas as high pop dencity means new job opertunities.
INCREASED ACCSESS TO TECHNOLOGY-transpot links means rural areas learn about the oppetunitys in urabn areas.
WHY PEOPLE MOVE RURAL- URBAN IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES-
inconsistant income and food supply- substistance farming.
no income- starvation.
low standard of living.
MILLION CITYS- over 1million pop- 400 of them
MEGACITYS- over 10 million pop- 22 of them.
CHINAS RURAL UNRABN MIGRATION-
300million now live in citys- 56% of the pop- most in the east coast BAIJING AND SHANGAI.
PUSH FACTORS IN LEAVING RURAL CHINA- high unermployment- poverty- low standard of living.
PULL FACOTS TO URBAN AREAS- higher employment- TNCs investment- higher wages- higer standerd of living
1998 china- 7 doctors per 1000 in urban
1 doctor per 1000 in rural.
cycle of urbanisation
diffrent patterns of population movment in citys help to make up the cycle of urbanisation-
URBANISATION- growth of proportion living in citys.
SUBURABNISATION- movment of people from city centre to lower dencity housing on the outskirts.
COUNTER- URBANISATION-out of the city to villages and rural areas.
RE- URBANISATION- back to the citys from rural areas.
LONDON MEGA CITY
location- SE uk.
Population- 13 million. pop dencity of 4800 per km2
URABN CYCLE- growing but not rapidly less the 1million since 1981-
URBANISATATION- this is occring in 2006 net gain of 70,000.
COUNTER-URBANISATION- people are moving out 2006 net loss of 80,000 people.
ECONOMEY- post industrial economey-85% service based
it is a major finatial center with the stock exchange- 15 million tourists a year.
HOUSING PATTERNS-poorer parts- hackney have change due to gentrification.
SUBURBAN GROWTH- villages around london have be turned into suburbes.
MUMBI MEGA CITY IN A NIC
location- West coast of india.
population-20 million pop dencity- 20,000 per km2.
Growing rapidly-6 million people since 1971- MASSIVE URBANISATION
ECONOMEY- fast growing - textiles manu and shipping.
also increased in IT and finantial sector.
bollywood films- 3.6 billion tickets worldwide.
HOUSING- wealthest near the CBD centrel buissness direct.
1/2 pop live in shanty towns- DHARAVI= 600,000 people living there.
MUMBI AND LONDON ARE LINKED- CADBURYS- global headquotors in both. BOLLYWOOD- 4o films made in london.
consequences of urban growth-
HOUSING SHORTAGE- not enough- children have to live at home longer- over crowded shanty towns.
CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS INCREASED.
How to make areas more sustanible.
CARBON NUTRIAL HOUSING- BED ZED- UKS LARGEST ECO VILLAGE.
MORE RENEWABLE ENERGY.
RECYCLE MORE WASTE.
IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSPORT.
WHY MAY DONGTAN NOT BE ACHIVED?
-NOT ENOUGH GOVERMENT SUPPORT.
-COSTS ALONT AND TAKE ALONG TIME TO BUILD ECO FRIENDLY.
DIFFICULT TO MAKE EXSISTING URBAN AREAS SUSTANIBLE- even if there is new sustanible areas there are still old unsustanible ones.