What is Globalisation
Globalisation is when countries become more interconnected and interdependant on each other.
TNC = transnational co-operation
This means that the company is located in more than one country. The countries headquaters would usually be in a MEDC such as the UK and the product would be manufactured in a NIC such as China
- They create jobs
- They get a reliable source of income
- Company spend money to improve infrastrucutur
- It gives training and education for people
- They are paid low wages
- The work long hours with poor conditions
- The jobs are secure
- Profits aren't reinvested into the country
Coca Cola Case Study
Coca Cola is one of the largest drinks companies in the world. It's headwusaters are in the USA in Atlanta, Georgia. 70% of it's sales are carried out in 44 different countires.
- It provides training and education for people in underdeveloped countries
- It invested 1.5 billion dollars into Russia's economy: they built manufacturing plants and improved infrastrucur
- They have set up community schemes in Africa and Bangladesh
- Employees in LEDC's are paid less than workers in MEDC's
- They work long hours
- Profits go to the headwuaters not the host country
- The jobs aren't secure
Causes of increased energy demands
World Population Growth:
Over the last 500 years there has been a growth in the population. This means that more people use even more energy, this is why LEDC use lots of energy. Also TNC use a lot of energy. The birth rate is lower than the death rate.
One reason is because of female emancipation, this means that in the average family they now have two people working which means that they have more disposable income. The disposable income is usually spent on electronic devices that consume lots of energy. Another reason is becasue of the increased minium wage.
There has been an advance in technology. We have more products that we use on a day to day basis such as latops, phones, tv's etc which consume a lot of energy
Acid rain is formed by the burning of fossil fuels. It involves the emissions of sulfue dioxide and nitrogen oxide. One negative impact is it makes the soil acidic, it erodes away stone and increases the ph levels in water causing fish to die.
How can energy be sustainable ?
What is sustainability?
Sustainablitiy is meeting the needs of todays society without effecting the needs of our future generations.
The Kyoto Protocol
The kyoto protocol is a binding international agreement. America did not want to be part of this as it ,meant they would suffer a big economic loss. The agreement stated that gas emissions should be lowered by 5% to the levels that they were at between 1990 and 2008. The Kyoto protocol was held in Japan in 1997.
This is a breakdownpf how much energy is used by fossil fuels and mon renewable forms of energy. Over the next hundred years it is likely that we will still be using them so they could potentially run out. It is likely that all fossil fuels will run out in 60 years.
Wind power is a renewable source of energy, which means it does not release greenhouse gases. There are some advantages and disadvantages to using wind power.
- Wind is free
- It doesn't release greenhouse gases
- It produces electricity for rural communities that are not part of the national grid
- It doesn't effect sea life
- It has a small carbon footprint
- It is not very efficent
- It reduces house prices in the area
- It causes visual pollution
- It causes nosie polution
- It costs a lot to manufactur
BASF Case Study
A Carbon Negative Company:
They have set themselves a goal to reduce all carbon emissions by 25% by 2020. It also manufacturs enviromentally friendly products for other companies. They achieve this by:
- thermal insulation: products reduce heat loss from buildings
- tighter plastics: to reduce fuel comnsumption by cars
- technology to cut emissions of greenhouse gases
- biodegradable plastics
- alternative energy products
- technology to cut down on release of gases from agriculture
It also works with LEDC to cut down on eniviromental damage.