Globalisation

  • Created by: KDallers-
  • Created on: 15-05-19 18:59

Intro to Globalisation

A 'contested and slippery term' - no set meaning - McGrew describes as 'bad description, bad theory' - we need to be PRECISE but FLEXIBLE with this concept - is it a process? label?; it is about 'TIME-SPACE COMPRESSION', 'CROSS BORDER FLOWS' and a notion of a SHRINKING WORLD

- Relates to discussion of 'GLOBAL POLITICS' - McGrew - this is a process of speeding + deepening INTERCONNECTEDNESS to the point where the world is 'deterritorialised' - McGrew

- Globalisation is about POWER 'AROUND' THE STATE - circumventing the nation-state as a concept, breaking down borders and transcending areas of HUMAN SOCIAL ORGANISATION

CRITICS; HELD - "the cliche of our times"; argument that it means many different things: transnational decision making, cross-border flows - unwilling to define the term - however, HAY - has been going on for MUCH OF HISTORY and is NOTHING NEW

History: Friedman - 1.0 until 1800 (large to medium), 2.0 1800-2000 (medium to small), 3.0 2000-  (small to a 'flat playing field') - HOW MUCH is this historical process impacting us today?

- HARVEY "THE WORLD IS BECOMING A GLOBAL VILALGE"

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Meaning of Globalisation

Rosenau - globalisation = era of 'post-IR'; Buzan - an 'economic phenomenon' with questionable validity; HAY - REJECTS GLOBALISATION

- Key parts to globalisation: - 'stretching' of activity (more international); - intensification of interconnection; - acceleration of interaction (such as the GFC 2008), and the world now appears to be a 'shared space' - borders are ERODING (Rosenau, McGrew)

- McGrew - 'transformationalist' - universal globalisation in all aspects; examples of the UNIVERSITY MARKET - students now competing with students from OTHER NATIONS and universities needing INTERNATIONAL PRESENCE - global "in all aspects of life"

- HAY - is globalisation the 'cliche of our time' (Held)? Has no definition according to Hay - not interdependence? Cross-border flows? A new 'world system? Can EVERYTHING be considered globalisation - if a disease spreads across a border, is it a 'globalised' disease? In reality, there are various notions of the NATIONAL, INTERNATIONAL, REGIONAL AND SUPRANATIONAL which 'globalisation' competes with

- National is being transcended in numerous ways: HELD - "A PROCESS EMBODYING A TRANSFORMATION IN THE SPATIAL ORGANISATION OF SOCIAL RELATIONS = TRANSCONTINENTAL FLOW

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Economics of Globalisation

Last 4 decades since Bretton-Woods; impacts of decisions have TRANSCENDED THE WORLD - such as the GFC - felt by everyone due to globalisation of finance

- TODAY: TNCs produce 1/4 of output, and 80% of investment; global communications have grown leading to greater mobilisation (NGOs, Interpol (security), Arab Spring); global governance grown too - IMF, UN, G20, $ as a global currency

- This has had the effect of restricting policy options - now all about privatisation, deregulation and marketisation - economics of 'shrinking' - STATES are now less important; HOWEVER still maintain some control (Hay and Rosamond)

CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE - globalisation can NOT be viewed as an UNPRECEDENTED PHENOMENON - no evidence to suggest that it is; HIRST - occurred in the 1960s

- OVERALL - trade integration is seen as more INTRA than INTERregional; regional integration only occurs in 3 areas - TRIADISATION of US, EU, Asia

- FINANCE - interest rates do not converge, and states are still relatively protectionist around this - Cerny - growth of the 'competition state' - HAY argues there is no evidence for this - the GFC gives an example of why finance does not need to be globalised

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Politics of Globalisation

Economic globalisation highlights a GROWING NEED for a neoliberal, 'competition' state (Cerny); need an active state on the international scene - relates to cultural globalisation - this has been occurring (example of K-Pop)

- Castells' 'variable geometry' - the West benefits from globalisation, and the East loses out - has led to conflict in the East over a lack of autonomy - global institutions are undemocratic, such as the IMF and G20 - McGrew 'the politics of domination

- SOVEREIGNTY - key political concept that globalisation challenges; has been eroded since Westphalian Agreement 1648 - decolonisation occurred giving more nations sovereignty, but since this has declined due to GLOBALISATION - global remission flows demonstrate this; the 'DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL ARE BLENDING' - B.CLINTON

- MULTILATERAL POLICY NETWORKS and GLOBAL GOVERNANCE shows how globalisation works; for example, NATO, World Bank, IOCL - there is more transnational civil society, and local issues have now become GLOBAL - a new style of decision making

- DANI RODRIK - developed the 'trilemma' of globalisation, evidencing the 'populist backlash' - nation-state, democratic politics and economic integration are INCOMPATIBLE, and one must suffer

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Criticisms of Globalisation

1) SOVEREIGNTY - globalisation undermines the Westphalian System 1648 which has organised the world for so long; the state is STILL IMPORTANT according to Buzan as states can POOL SOVEREIGNTY to overcome globalisation - a challenge to realism, but nation-state is still important

2) WESTERNCENTRISM - globalisation doesn't benefit poorer nations; only opens them up to 'NEW IMPERIALISM' as the global market expands - this deepens inequality - Chinese in Africa for example

3) NOT A THING - Hay - argues that finance is not as globalised as globalists assume - not an unprecedented thing, and has been happening for a long time

4) COMPETITION AND DIVISION - the opening up of the international market and previously authoritarian nations can unleash conflict (ethnic conflicts - Yugoslavia) and result in protectionism, like the US and China are now doing

5) SPATIAL ELEMENT - not truly global? Instead may be regionalisation, or TRIADISATION

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Benefits of Globalisation and Globalisation Today

1) PROMOTES ORDER - does globalisation promote a GREATER WORLD ORDER and greater understanding of IR? Could lead to 'post-IR' - no more conflict to discuss? (Rosenau)

2) PEACEFUL - increasing interconnectedness reduces the likelihood of war, as this becomes too costly - promotes LIBERAL COOPERATION in a peaceful, post-Cold War word instead

3) VALUES - promoting democratisation, the rule of law, and LIBERAL VALUES which should be 'universal' - Kant - forcing authoritarian nations to submit to this

TODAY - there are more 'global movements' operating in a NEW FRAMEWORK - for example, MeToo movement - this uses SOCIAL MEDIA to become global; represents a 'shrinking' due to the internet, which is USED FOR POLITICAL REASONS - Rheingold

- End of the 'nation state?' - this had led to POPULIST BACKLASH (Rodrik) - however, this backlash has been coordinated internationally - through figures like Steve Bannon

- People want to 'take back control' from globalists - Orban, Erdogan - idea of a 'SLIDE BACK TOWARDS A DEGLOBALISED WORLD' - Rosenberg

Overall - globalisation is WIDELY ACCEPTED - people deal with it and settle for globalisation - with the EU-Japan trade deal

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Key Thinkers of Globalisation

McGrew - textbook, pro-globalisation - a transformationalist

Held - anti-globalisation, as are Hay (textbook); Rosamond; Buzan (realist)

Friedman - 3 stages of history of globalisation

Rosenau - post-IR concept

Hirst - comparison with the 60s

Cerny - the 'competition state' idea of global interconnectedness

B.Clinton - domestic-international 'blending'

D.Rodrik - trilemma

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