Geography- Tourism

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Global growth of tourism

Defintion of tourism- Tourism is where tourists visit different place or events, for atleast one night.

Tourism is the world's largest industry. In most countries, domesti ctourism is about four times greater then international tourism. The top 6 destination countries are France, Spain, USA, China, Italy and the UK.

Domestic Tourism- In the same country                                                                 International Tourism- Go abroad

Factors affecting growth of tourism are Social and Economics, Improvements in technology and Expansion of holiday choice.

Tourism not only creates jobs in the tertiary sector, it also encourages growth in primary and secondary sectors of indrustry. This is known as the mutlipilier effect which is its simplest from is how many times money spent by a tourist country's economy.

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Tourism Trends

A graph to show growth in tourism (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/images/24_tourism_trends.gif)

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Reasons Behind The Trend In Tourism

  • More affluence - since 1950 people have become more wealthy. There is more disposable income. People also now have paid time off work for holidays.
  • Greater awareness - through advertising or television programmes people are more aware of how and where they can spend their free time.
  • More car ownership - more families own a car. This gives greater freedom to choose when and where to spend time.
  • Improvements in technology - travelling today is much quicker. Motorways and aircraft have helped reduce the time it takes to get to different countries. Travelling by air has become more accessible as you can book on line and choose more budget options.
  • More leisure time - people have paid holidays from work (on average three weeks per year are paid). Also people who are retired remain active for longer. There is also a trend to take more than one holiday in a year.
  • More choice - in the past seaside holidays and package holidays were the most popular. The industry is seeing more people look at ecotourism and more unusual holiday destinations.
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Where are the environments that favour tourism?

These are the environments that favour tourism:

Coastal areas- Basic attractions, the three **: sun, sand and sea. Winter beach holidays are to the Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Asia.

Mountains- Basic attractions, the two **: snow and scenery. Key geographical factors- climate and relief.

Citites- Basic attractions, many and varied, but mostly human. Major events- sporting, cultral, historical and enterainment.

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Tourism within the UK

What makes the UK attractive to overeas visitors?                

  • London Eye
  • Leeds Castle
  • Diana Memoral
  • Royal Family
  • Festivals
  • Big Ben
  • Tower Bridge                                                                                                                                                           

Almost all UK tourism to be domestic - british people holidaying in the UK. Domestic holidays can be cheap or expensive. Only the wealthy and prvileged were able to go abroad.

The UK is  number six in the world for visitor numbers.

UK coastal resorts are in decline

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Blackpool Case study

Location :Blackpool is a coastal city on the west of the country lancashire. It is the Uk's leading coastal resort.

Background: Based on visitor numbers, Blackpool is still the Uk's leading coastal resort. The tourist infrasture of promenade, piers, big hotels and the tower.

Decline: THe traditional British seaside resorts have been in decline for 40 years, ever since people discovered guaranted summer sun and warth in Mediterranean countries. Blackpool was badly affected.

Strategies for solving Blackpool's problems: The local authorites now recognise the need for urgent action to arrest the decline. Beaches have been cleaned up, New attraction water world opened in 2006 and there are plans to make more convered ways between the main visitor attractions.

How effective have the strategies been?: The big dream was shattered when the government awarded tge super-casino to Manchester. Average occupancy rates holiday accomodation remain below 25%. 

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National Parks

What is the importance of National Parks for UK tourims?:

  • An area is usually designed by law where development is limited and planning controlled
  • Large areas of rural land.                                                                                        
  •  Land remains privately owned mainly by farmers.                                                
  • Local people make their living from the land and local buisnesses.

15 National parks in the British Isles. The first park created under this act was the Peak District National Park, Protect Britain's most spectacular scenery. National Parks are thereto offer the British people access in the countryside for recreational purposes.

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Lake District Case Study

Location: Its located in the Northm West of England.

Background: The Lake District is the largest and most popular National Park in Britain. It has mountains, moors and woodland as well as lakes and windswept coastline. Over 14 million people visit the Park each year.

Why has Bouness become so popular?:

  • More emphasis on need to relax and take excerise for health reasons.                    
  • More leisure time due to shorter working week, part-tine jobs and early retirement.       
  • More people have longer and paid holdays.                                                         
  • Easer access by M6 and local roads improvement.                                         

Problems and conflints in the Lake District: 

  • Farmers and visitors                                                                                   
  • Residents                                                                                                      
  • Visitors
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Mass Tourism

Economic Gains:

  • New infrastructure 
  • Great earner of foreign exchange                                                                          

Econimic Losses:                                                                                                      

  •  Some local people, hotably farmers and fishermen may lose their livelihoods       
  • The country tourist region might gain only small percentage of total tourist spend

Environmental losses:    

  • Loss of rural peace and quiet, which is replaced by urban activity noise        
  • Complete destruction of environment, and resulting habitat losses, in order to build hotels, roads and airports. 

Environment Gain:

  • Income from tourism/ entrance fees may pay for management, conservation and repairs
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Kenya Case Study

Main tourist attraction: 8000 visitors on a busy day will be in the safar park. Leading to queues of 70 or more safari vans at prime viewing points.

Is tourism good or bad for kenya?: As a relatively poor African country, with a visible trade deficit, kenya a relies massively on inflows of foregn exchange from foreign tourists.

Strategies for the future:                                                                                                  

  • Diversify the country's tourist product range, by opening up new avenues of tourism, such as adventure activites.                                                                                   
  • Doubling park entry fees.                                                                                 
  • Setting a higher minimum price level in hotels and camps                                   
  • Adding a premium to be using for game park improvement

Key facts Kenya:

  • Total population: About 36 million
  • Birth rate: 32 per 1000
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Extreme environments

Why visit Antartica?                      

  • Cruises       
  • Yatching
  • Ice Bird
  • Animals
  • Scenery
  • Little Rain 
  • Adventure                                                                              
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Antarctica case Study

Location: Antarctica is Earth's southermost contient, encapsulating.

Why visit Antarctica?                                                                                                    

  •  Most tourists visit between November and March                                        
  •  Magnificent scenery, icebery and nesting peguins                                              
  • About 28,000 tourists vist the contient every year

Future of tourism in Antarctica:                                                                                      

  • Last year more than 28,000 visitors                                                                   
  • Rising tourim is threating Antarctica's pristine wilderness                                      
  • Large cruise liners run global companies are now entering the Antaric tourist trade, making the beginning of mass tourism in Antarctica.
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Ecotourism

Ecotourism encourages visitors to a country to leave a small carbon footprint, to the benefit of local communities and environments. It has become an increasingly popular option for many people.

Ecotourism is a type of sustainabledevelopment. The aim of ecotourism is to reduce the impact that tourism has on naturally beautiful environments.

Any tourist destination can be harmed by increased levels of tourism. If areas are damaged or destroyed, they might not be available to future generations.

The ecotourism approach:

  • Ensuring that tourism does not exploit the natural environment or local communities.
  • Consultation with local communities on planned developments.
  • Making sure that infrastructure improvements benefit local people and not just tourists.

Ecotourism now has the backing of the United Nations, which made 2002 the"International Year of Ecotourism".

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Guild Lines For Ectourism

Ecotourism sets out guidelines for how tourists should behave when visiting fragile environments:

  • Protect the environment - keep to footpaths, don't leave litter or start fires.
  • Don't interfere with wildlife - don't scare or feed the animals.
  • Protect resources - don't take too many showers or use air conditioning.
  • Support local communities - stay in locally owned accommodation and buy produce from local people.
  • Eat local food and drink - avoid products that have been imported fromMEDCs.
  • Respect local customs and traditions - some communities are offended when tourists wear inappropriate clothes in religious places, strip off on the beach or behave in a rowdy manner. Locals appreciate tourists who try to learn the language and show an interest in their culture.
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