Globalisation and Crime
No crime barriers. More crimes are now done by the powerful. Zemiology- actions that are now known as criminal e.g. crimes that don't break written laws. DAVID HELD= worldwide connections have widened and sped up including cultural criminal, financial and spiritual. E.G.1= PAEDOPHILIA NETWORK SMASHED-2011 the biggest paedophilia network was found. 70,000 members were found worldwide aged from 19-84yrs. 230 kids were saved. digital footprints can be tracked to find criminal. E.G.2= COCAINE COAST, COLUMBIA, USA. 20% of columbians are involved in cocaine production. the product is sent worlwide in a matter of days. those who produce it, those who buy it, those who conduct it can all be said to be criminal. 90% of worldwide drugs are from Columbia. there are also invisible criminals e.g. those who are left behind are left in poverty. 300-700 drug related criminals killed per year.
GLOBAL RISK CONSCIOUSNESS- BECK= Postmodern criminology. We are now more aware of perceiving greater global risks. this creates panic. Deterrants are becoming more forceful, impressive and more intelligent e.g. thermal imaging to find immigrant hideoutsd in urban areas.
Includes crime thats against the environment. Has a wide range of geographical effects and damage can last for years after. There are few written laws against green crime so is it actually breaking the law?. GLOBAL RISK SOCIETY AND THE ENVIRONMENT- the fact we produce more stuff we are actually increasing the risk of something happening. PRIMARY CRIMES E.G. BP oil spill. 2010. One of the drills that was used to collect oil was faulty. it was the biggest oil spill in US history. 11 workers were killed immediately. They were punished with a fine but this could easily be paid off by a successful company. it was estimated that 5 million barrels worth of oil was released. The environmental impact isn't fully known as the oil is still spreading. March 2012- whole coral reef was destroyed by oil spill. This will kill animal and plant life. SECONDARY CRIMES E.G. Green peace protest. They protested against nuclear waste being dropped in sea near New Zealand by French. They protested and the french government allowed their boat to be bombed at. 1 was killed but president was never charged as he didn't do it himself. the 2 men who actually did it stood in court. they were sentenced to and average of 9 years each but government compromised to 2 years each. Who was the actual criminal? EVAL OF GREEN CRIME- by focussing on the much broader concept of harm rather than who was legally responsible we can't define the boundaries of crime
CHAMBLISS- argues that we should examine the crimes committed by the state:crimes of the powerful. The crimes are commited to increase profit and to further government's policies. POLITICAL CRIME- e.g. President Mugabe was in power for 20/30yrs. Very few like him in power but increases votesby corrupting election. GENOCIDES, TORTURINGS AND DISAPPEARANCES- E.g. President Pinochet, Chile 1980's. He was a right wing dictator. Government were told to round up any opposing people who were then shot. He ordered people to do it so is he a criminal? ECONOMIC CRIMES- e.g. green crime. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CRIMES- e.g. bullying of armed forces and Human rights abuse in catholic church in Europe.
Principles of National Sovereignty
Each country has its own laws. The government in that country has supreme authority of what goes on there. When things go wrong there are international attempts to interfere but there can be issues with sentencing. E.G.1- Syria. Human RIghts Abuse 2011/12. President Assad was seen by many as a negative thing for their country. He ordered that those who were against were to have their chidlren abducted and tortured e.g. shot in knee caps. Once shot they were denied medical help. 9000 were killed just last year due to them and their families being against them. E.G.2- Cambodia 1970's. Pol Pot was their leader. He tried to make his state communist. 25% of the country died within 3 yrs due to malnutrition, execution and overworking. He wanted to purify the country and take in back to year 0. He cut everyone off from the outside. Religion and healthcare were banned. They killed professionals such as teachers to stop them from telling others hwo society should be run or how it could be improved. Pol Pot eventually died of a 'heart attack'.
Organisation of Crime
crime used to be local e.g i know someone down the pub who can sort you out. Industries and manual work are dying out. WINLOW- the leisure industry has increased a lot recently to replace the decrease in manual work. Those who used to do manual work e.g. builders who become bouncers, have legal jobs as a bit on the side... they often do drug dealing etc. HOBBS AND DUNNINGHAM- studied post- industrial towns. The more people who go to criminals for help the wider their netowrk becomes to cope with the demands. E.g. 1950's london criminal networks used to be local... now in 2012 we have global crime networks. E.g. McDonalds have sites pretty much everywhere... you are never more than 10 mins away from a site. They are therefore known as the McMafia.
The Collapse of Communism
Late 1980's. Fall of the Berlin Wall etc led to the Soviet Union Falling. There was an increase in greed after communism fell. The KGB enforced communism then lost their jobs due to collapse. They them looked for criminal jobs to gain power again for them individually. They began to control everything that led them to have profit.
States make their own laws to allow control over society. E.g. nazi germany created laws that stopped the disabled community having children and were therefore sterilised. THE SCHWENDINGERS- 1970. We should define crime as the breaking of human rights rather than the breaking of laws. Civil rights have only recently been enforced as what is seen as right. Some parts are written laws others are what is seen as correct to do. We need to employ a transgressive criminology where we re- evaluate what is criminal and what is just morally wrong. EVAL= COHEN- hard to define what is criminal due to everyone has different morals etc due to an increase in diversity. At the moment we can 't even agree to what human rights are necessary. Governments tend to either shift the balme of the crimes of the state or justify them in a weird way, e.g. tony blair's explanation of invading Iraq. VIETNAM WAR- my lai massacre. this was an attempt to stop the spread of communism where those who were against it were shot. The soldiers involved were sent to the jungle to show no mercy on villagers... they killed kids, women and men. One soldier was injured... he shot himself in the foot! This massacre was enforced by the government... yet only one american officer was sent to court and even he was said to be blameless. 1/14 of the soldiers sent to court was found guilty and he only did 1/3 of his original sentence.