Global Development Theme 1 - Globalisation

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Global Optimists 1

ON GLOBALISATION:

  • Believe that Globalisation is a good thing 
  • Globalisation is a worldwide extension of capitalism and the free market
  • This will lead to economic growth, the eradication of poverty and the spread of democracy


ON ECONOMIC TRADE:

  • There has been an international increase in trade since the 1950s - this has lead to an increase in wealth, health and education globally
  • Increased trade has lead to an increase in GDP and GNP of countries which are a part of the global capitalist system


ON TNCs:

  • TNCs bring investment and jobs to developing countries
  • They have more power than many Nation States - they are therefore the 'driving force' behind economic globalisation 
  • They are responsible for three quarters of global trade
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Global Optimists 2

ON CULTURAL CONSUMPTION:

  • Asia and South America are becoming more consumerative in their lifestyles, like the West
  • Growth of social media also facilitates cultural globalisation                                                                                                                                                      

ON DEMOCRACY:

  • Globalisation involves the spread of Western values, such as democracy, freedom of speech etc. 
  • Includes respect for meritocracy and the decline of patriarchal control                                                                                         

ON DETRADITIONALISATION:

  • Cosmopolitanism - tradition for the sake of tradition is challenged 
  • The individual has much more freedom tyo reflect on already existing cultures
  • Culture becomes something that is fluid, open to debate and adaptations 
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Global Pessimists 1

ON GLOBALISATION:

  • Believe that globalisation and the erosion of the Nation States is a bad thing
  • Globalisation is a negative process involving Western Imperialism 
  • It is a process in which Western institutions are imposed on the rest of the world                             

ON ECONOMIC TRADE:

  • Not everyone benefits from world trade - Sub-Saharan Africa is still in poverty
  • Global trad ecauses an increase in illegal trade, such as drugs and sex trafficking
  • Trade depends on industrial manufacturing and transportation which damages the environment and increases pollution                                                                                                                                                                                                              

ON TNCs:

  • Removal of indigenous people - destabilising local communities 
  • Exploitation of workers
  • Ecological damage
  • Death and illness 
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Global Pessimists 2

ON CULTURAL CONSUMPTION:

  • Americanisation - where shallow and formulaic American popular culture undermines local traditions
  • Influence of the media threatens democracy and freedom of expression
  • Mass-advertising of Western cultural icons has resulted in their logos becoming powerful symbols in the developing world - coca-colonisation                                                                                                                                      

ON DEMOCRACY:

  • It's the spread of US military power, not democracy
  • The USA spends $700 billion every year on its military                                                                                                                                                                      

ON DETRADITIONALISATION:

  • Zygmunt Bauman - global cities aren't characterised by educated elites who engage in democracy and challenge traditional ways of life
  • Fortress cities - where the rich 'hide' in expensive communities and the poor are left in the slums 
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Transformationalists 1

ON GLOBALISATION:

  • Globalisation is a complex process involving exchanges between global institutions and local cultures
  • Parts of the world are truly a part of the global systems, others are left out
  • Globalisation is neither inevitable nor good or bad - it is too complex to understand                                                                                                      

ON ECONOMIC TRADE:

  • Trade is a two way process (criticism of global pessimism)
  • There has been an expansion of fair trade but also an expansion of illegal trade 
  • Governments regulate international companies in different ways                                                                                                         

ON TNCs: 

  • There will be people who benefit from TNCs and people who don't
  • Governments regulate companies differently depending on where they are in the world - because of a country's pollution laws, tax laws, wages, health and safety laws, trade unions etc. 
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Transformationalists 2

ON CULTURAL CONSUMPTION:

  • Consumption is characterised by cultural hybridity - when new brands come into contact with local cultures and they are modified by these cultures, which creates new products (e.g. chicken tikka masala)                                                                                                                                                                             

ON DEMOCRACY:

  • Characterised by new political formations
  • For example, China is a communist country that doesn't allow voting but supports capitalism
  • Many African 'democracies' are so corrup that they can't really be called democracies                                                                                              

ON DETRADITIONALISATION:

  • Anthony Giddens - people increasingly challenge traditions as they come into contact with new ideas
  • However, people still choose to engage in traditional practices - this is not 'traditional traditionalisation', however, when people just do things because it's always been done that way 
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Traditionalists 1

ON GLOBALISATION: 

  • The extent of globalisation has been rapidly exaggerated
  • Nation States and local communities still have the power to resist globalisations                                                      

ON ECONOMIC TRADE:

  • Trade is not truly global, it is regional
  • About 60% of EU trade is within the EU
  • Sub-saharan Africa is largely left out of global trade or they do not receive enough from the trade that they are a part of                                                                                                                                       

ON TNCs:

  • They do not operate in all countries - only secure ones 
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Traditionalists 2

ON CULTURAL CONSUMPTION:

  • Billions of people still live in subsistence lifestyles and cannot afford to take part in globalised, Western-style consumption                                                                                                                        

ON DEMOCRACY:

  • Some countries remain cut off from global democracies and military force 
  • Some traditional cultures still practice abuses that go against the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - e.g. anbout 90% of women in Somalia have undergone FGM                                                                                                       

ON DETRADITIONALISATION:

  • Local traditions still remain in some countries, therefore detraditionalisation is exaggerated
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