Education facts and stats
- Women's literacy rates improved from 54%->74% (from 1970->1990)
- The South has 60% of the world's students and only 11.6% of the total education budget.
- In Pakistan providing an extra year of schooling for 1,000 girls would prevent about 60 infant deaths in the future.
- Literate mothers are 50% more likely to immunize their children.
- 25% of all adults in the developing world are illiterate. But learning English can increase the earning power of individuals by around 25%!
- In Sub-Saharan Africa there are only enough places for 36% of secondary school age children.
- Developing countries spend an average of 4.4% of their national income on education. Compared to amounts between 5.5% to even 8% in countries in Europe and the USA
Health facts and stats
- Close to 50% of all people in developing countries suffering at any given time from a health problem caused by water and sanitation deficits.
- In Africa, children of mothers who received 5 years of primary education are 40% more likely to live past the age of 5.
Gender facts and stats
- Information collected from 46 African Countries showed that only 3.4% of trained government workers providing agricultural advice to people in rural areas were women.
- Women on average have 17% lower wages in developed societies and have to work 50% higher working hours.
- In 1/3rd of developing countries women account for less than 10% of parlimentary members.
- It is estimated that less than 2% of all titled land worldwide.
Population facts and stats
- In the world's 49 most poor countries (where it is estimated population will reach 1.8 billion in 2050.)
- According to the World Development Report (1995) "Population Growth is decreasing in all continents and world population will stabilize at a total of 11 billion by the year 2100."
- China's one child policy: "Because China has worked hard over the last 30 years, we have 400 million fewer people."
- A fertility rate of 2.1 births per woman indicaed eplacement level.
- The world could feed up to 11 billion people curently if resouces were properly invested.
- In March 2012 world population hit 7 billion, so it took humanity around 200 years to rise from 1 -> 7 billion. Whereas it took 50,000 years to go from 0->1 billion.
- It was estimated in 1998 by the Germany World Population Fund hat 1/3rd of the population growth in the world is the result of incidental or unwanted pegnancies.
Dependency and underdevelopment
- “The West has deliberately and systematically under-developed Third World Countries.”
Aid as government to government subsidy, to aid growth in giving countries (tied aid.)
Aid is imperialism (power.)
New barbarism, a variant of Malthusian theory, that overpopulation and exhaustion of resources were leading to civil wars in developing countries.
Five stages to development
CHANG: The rich nations have kicked Rostow’s ladder away.
The total number of television sets in the developing world has grown so rapidly that it has had a devastating effect on people in the developing world. As the world's media is controlled by a few very large corporations, who are able to influence Business, international agencies and governments and consequently to threaten democracy and freedom of expression.
One big push to solve world poverty.
The debt boomerang affects the rich too.
- McDonaldisation - the process by which the principles of the fast food restaurant are dominating society:
1. Efficiency: producing and consuming burgers is likened to an assembly-line experience.
2. Calculability: achieving maximum quantity with minimum input.
3. Predictability: standardisation of product, service and environment
4. Control: tasks are de-skilled through technology.
Poverty causes high population because in developing societies, children are economic assets in terms of their labour power and the extra income they can generate. (VS. Malthusians!)
“It’s not because people started breeding like rabbits. It’s that they stopped dying like flies.”
“No matter which country we focus on throughout the world women are worse off than men.”
“Meritocratic education systems can speed up the spread of Western values.”
“Ehrlich’s model is flawed - changes in technology mean that food production has increased faster than population growth.”
Too much attention is paid in the Third World to high tech medical procedure and not enough to basic health provisions.
Boys are still more likely to be educated than girls, although the gap seems to be reducing. Even in the late 1990’s 125 million children are out of school.
Argues that mimicking of the structure of the developed nations was one of the principal causes of an overemphasis on higher education.
“Globalisation is the most slippery buzzword of the late twentieth century because it can have many meanings and be used in many ways.”
The Bottom Billion & Africa+: The billion poorest people in the world today, who are—unlike the other four fifths of the worlds poor—making little or no progress towards increased economic wealth and security.
Greater educational opportunities for adolescent girls in order to break the cycle of early childbearing.
Alternative Marxist-influenced theory to modernization, focused on external factors which impede development, including relationships with developed countries.
Dominant development theory of the 1960s, based on factors internal to Third World countries inhibiting their development.
Neo-liberal Economic Theory
The dominant theory in influencing development policies in the 1980s and 1990s, based on a minimal role for states and liberalization of trade to allow the free market (capitalism) to work without restrictions.
Population growth will overtake food supply.
World System Theory
WALLERSTEIN: Follows on from dependency theory, sharing with it a basis of Marxism - was one of the first people to acknowledge globalisation. As dependency theory had tended to focus on individual countries. Whereas WST introduced the concept of a single unified capitalist system which ignores national boundaries in the search for profits. Wealth has been extracted through slavery, colonialism, trade and TNCs. It has a 3 tier structure:
CORE: MEDCS - USA, germany & UK
SEMI-PERIPHERY: Including NICS & BRICS - Brazil, South Africa, Mexico, India
PERIPHERY: LEDCS (bottom billion) - Yemen, cambodia, ethiopia, chad
Wallerstein believed countries could be upwardly or downwardly mobile, much more flexible than Frank’s dependency theory!
- It focuses on the economy and does not consider social or cultural factors.
- Ignores corruption and wasted spending
- Wallerstein is vague as to how a socialist world economy could come about & the separation between tiers are vague (not empirical.)
Kaplan’s theory, a variant of Malthusian theory, that overpopulation and exhaustion of resources were leading to civil wars in developing countries.