Global Development Revision

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Education facts and stats

  • Women's literacy rates improved from 54%->74% (from 1970->1990)
  • The South has 60% of the world's students and only 11.6% of the total education budget.
  • In Pakistan providing an extra year of schooling for 1,000 girls would prevent about 60 infant deaths in the future. 
  • Literate mothers are 50% more likely to immunize their children. 
  • 25% of all adults in the developing world are illiterate. But learning English can increase the earning power of individuals by around 25%!
  • In Sub-Saharan Africa there are only enough places for 36% of secondary school age children.
  • Developing countries spend an average of 4.4% of their national income on education. Compared to amounts between 5.5% to even 8% in countries in Europe and the USA
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Health facts and stats

  • Close to 50% of all people in developing countries suffering at any given time from a health problem caused by water and sanitation deficits.
  • In Africa, children of mothers who received 5 years of primary education are 40% more likely to live past the age of 5
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Gender facts and stats

  • Information collected from 46 African Countries showed that only 3.4% of trained government workers providing agricultural advice to people in rural areas were women. 
  • Women on average have 17% lower wages in developed societies and have to work 50% higher working hours
  • In 1/3rd of developing countries women account for less than 10% of parlimentary members. 
  • It is estimated that less than 2% of all titled land worldwide. 
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Population facts and stats

  • In the world's 49 most poor countries (where it is estimated population will reach 1.8 billion in 2050.)
  • According to the World Development Report (1995) "Population Growth is decreasing in all continents and world population will stabilize at a total of 11 billion by the year 2100."
  • China's one child policy: "Because China has worked hard over the last 30 years, we have 400 million fewer people." 
  • A fertility rate of 2.1 births per woman indicaed eplacement level. 
  • The world could feed up to 11 billion people curently if resouces were properly invested. 
  • In March 2012 world population hit 7 billion, so it took humanity around 200 years to rise from 1 -> 7 billion. Whereas it took 50,000 years to go from 0->1 billion. 
  • It was estimated in 1998 by the Germany World Population Fund hat 1/3rd of the population growth in the world is the result of incidental or unwanted pegnancies. 
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FRANK

Dependency and underdevelopment

  • “The West has deliberately and systematically under-developed Third World Countries.”
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BAUER

 Aid as government to government subsidy, to aid growth in giving countries (tied aid.)

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HAYER

Aid is imperialism (power.)

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KAPLAN

New barbarism, a variant of Malthusian theory, that overpopulation and exhaustion of resources were leading to civil wars in developing countries.


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ROSTOW

Five stages to development

CHANG: The rich nations have kicked Rostow’s ladder away.

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McKAY

The total number of television sets in the developing world has grown so rapidly that it has had a devastating effect on people in the developing world. As the world's media is controlled by a few very large corporations, who are able to influence Business, international agencies and governments and consequently to threaten democracy and freedom of expression.

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SACHS

One big push to solve world poverty.

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GEORGE

The debt boomerang affects the rich too.

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RITZER

  • McDonaldisation -  the process by which the principles of the fast food restaurant are dominating society:

1. Efficiency: producing and consuming burgers is likened to an assembly-line experience.

2. Calculability: achieving maximum quantity with minimum input.

3. Predictability: standardisation of product, service and environment

4. Control: tasks are de-skilled through technology.


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ADAMSON

Poverty causes high population because in developing societies, children are economic assets in terms of their labour power and the extra income they can generate. (VS. Malthusians!)

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EBERSTADT

“It’s not because people started breeding like rabbits. It’s that they stopped dying like flies.”

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LEONARD

“No matter which country we focus on throughout the world women are worse off than men.”

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HOSELITZ

“Meritocratic education systems can speed up the spread of Western values.”

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EHRLICH

Population Explosion

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CARNELL

Ehrlich’s model is flawed - changes in technology mean that food production has increased faster than population growth.”

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NAVARRO

Too much attention is paid in the Third World to high tech medical procedure and not enough to basic health provisions.

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HUNT

Boys are still more likely to be educated than girls, although the gap seems to be reducing. Even in the late 1990’s 125 million children are out of school.

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AVALOS

Argues that mimicking of the structure of the developed nations was one of the principal causes of an overemphasis on higher education.  

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WISEMAN

“Globalisation is the most slippery buzzword of the late twentieth century because it can have many meanings and be used in many ways.”

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COLLIER

The Bottom Billion & Africa+: The billion poorest people in the world today, who are—unlike the other four fifths of the worlds poor—making little or no progress towards increased economic wealth and security.

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BOSERUP

Greater educational opportunities for adolescent girls in order to break the cycle of early childbearing.

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Dependency theory

Alternative Marxist-influenced theory to modernization, focused on external factors which impede development, including relationships with developed countries.

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Modernization theory

Dominant development theory of the 1960s, based on factors internal to Third World countries inhibiting their development.

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Neo-liberal Economic Theory

The dominant theory in influencing development policies in the 1980s and 1990s, based on a minimal role for states and liberalization of trade to allow the free market (capitalism) to work without restrictions.

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Malthusian

Population growth will overtake food supply.

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World System Theory

  • WALLERSTEIN: Follows on from dependency theory, sharing with it a basis of Marxism - was one of the first people to acknowledge globalisation. As dependency theory had tended to focus on individual countries. Whereas WST introduced the concept of a single unified capitalist system which ignores national boundaries in the search for profits. Wealth has been extracted through slavery, colonialism, trade and TNCs. It has a 3 tier structure:

CORE: MEDCS - USA, germany & UK

SEMI-PERIPHERY: Including NICS & BRICS - Brazil, South Africa, Mexico, India

PERIPHERY: LEDCS (bottom billion) - Yemen, cambodia, ethiopia, chad

Wallerstein believed countries could be upwardly or downwardly mobile, much more flexible than Frank’s dependency theory!

- It focuses on the economy and does not consider social or cultural factors.

- Ignores corruption and wasted spending

- Wallerstein is vague as to how a socialist world economy could come about & the separation between tiers are vague (not empirical.)

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New Barbarism

Kaplan’s theory, a variant of Malthusian theory, that overpopulation and exhaustion of resources were leading to civil wars in developing countries.

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