Global sporting events

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Modern Olympic Games

  • Established in 1896 by Baron Pierre de Coubertin (French educator/historian).
  • Was inspired by William Penny Brooke's Much wenlock games in Shropshire.
  • Philosphy of the games was to bring countries together and provide healthy competition that is devoid of politics. IOC set up.
  • Aims of the games are: promote development of the physical/moral qualities that are the basis of sport, spread Olympic principles to create international goodwill, bring athletes together and to educate youth through sport to create a more peaceful world.

The Olympic values:

  • 1. Encourage effort (striving for excellence)- motto of 'Citius, Altius, Fortius'
  • 2. Preserve human dignity (respect)- no discrimination, just mutual understanding.
  • 3. Develop harmony (friendship)- sport has a role in the development of human harmony.
  • Values are predominantly based on: respect, excellence, friendship, courage, determination, inspiration and equality.
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Modern Olympic Games

British Olympic Association (BOA):

  • Formed in 1905, responsible for the planning/execution of team GB's participation in the Olympic and Winter Olympic games (provides support during and after).
  • Works with the Olympic Governing bodies; BOA selects the team.
  • Role= to lead/prepare the nation's best athletes at the Games, deliver extensive support services to Britain's Olympic athletes and NGB's throughout each Olympics.
  • Also have to develop the Olympic movement in UK; BOA isn't funded/controlled by government so is solely dependant on commercial sponsorship and fundraising income.
  • Help educate public about Olympics and provide resources for schools and colleges to use.

International Olympic Committee (IOC):

  • Created by the Paris Congress in 1894; owns rights to Olympics and the Olympic symbol.
  • Administers the Olympic movement; members are appointed to the IOC and are responsible for selecting the host cities of the Games (Summer and winter).
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Modern Olympic Games

The Paralympics:

  • 1st official Olympic-style games for athletes with a disabilty= Rome 1960.
  • 1st Paralympic Winter Games= Sweden 1976.
  • Paralympic values based on the tradition of fair play and honourable sports competition.
  • Values are: determination, courage, equality and inspiration.

Political exploitation of the Games:

  • Have been used as a 'political football' or to make political points due to the extensive global publicity it receives.
  • IOC aims to separate sports from politics but many countries use the Games to make political statements (can overshadow the events themselves).
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Modern Olympic Games

The Paralympics:

  • 1st official Olympic-style games for athletes with a disabilty= Rome 1960.
  • 1st Paralympic Winter Games= Sweden 1976.
  • Paralympic values based on the tradition of fair play and honourable sports competition.
  • Values are: determination, courage, equality and inspiration.

Political exploitation of the Games:

  • Have been used as a 'political football' or to make political points due to the extensive global publicity it receives.
  • IOC aims to separate sports from politics but many countries use the Games to make political statements (can overshadow the events themselves).
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Modern Olympic Games

The Paralympics:

  • 1st official Olympic-style games for athletes with a disabilty= Rome 1960.
  • 1st Paralympic Winter Games= Sweden 1976.
  • Paralympic values based on the tradition of fair play and honourable sports competition.
  • Values are: determination, courage, equality and inspiration.

Political exploitation of the Games:

  • Have been used as a 'political football' or to make political points due to the extensive global publicity it receives.
  • IOC aims to separate sports from politics but many countries use the Games to make political statements (can overshadow the events themselves).
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Berlin 1936: Third Reich ideology

  • Used by Hitler/Nazi party as a stage for political propaganda for the Third Reich (ideology that viewed Germany as a superior empire).
  • Keen for German team to win medals across the board to showcase their supremacy.
  • Was the perfect opportunity for the Nazi's to prove the superiority of the 'master race'.
  • The Nazi Germany team trained full time (Olympics supposed to be an amateur competition).
  • Lutz Lang (poster boy) was a stereotype for the 'Aryan racial superiority'.
  • Jesse Owens (US athlete) viewed as 'racially inferior'; beat Lang in long jump final, won 4 Golds and broke 11 records; Hitler refused to place the Gold medal around Owens' neck.
  • Stadium held 100,000, 150 olympic buildings, anti-semitic posters removed prior to games.
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Mexico City 1968: 'Black power' demonstration

  • South Africa's invitation was withdrawn due to other countries threatning to boycott due to their Apartheid regime.
  • 2 black athletes used a medal ceremony to protest about their lack of civil rights.
  • Black Americans lacked equality, segregated and many lived in poverty.
  • Tommie Smith and John Carlos protested; all African-American athletes urged to do so.
  • Smith won Gold in 200m and Carlos took bronze; Smith wore a black glove on his left hand (represented unity in black America), Carlos wore it on his right (black power in America).
  • Created an archway with their arms to represent black power and unity in America.
  • Wore black socks with no shoes to symbolise black poverty in the US.
  • The 'black power' salute put a global spotlight on the plight of black Americans.
  • Told to leave the Games which are supposed to be devoid of politics.
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Munich 1972: Palestinian terrorism

  • Day before the games began, 8 Palestinian terrorists entered the Olympic village and seized 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team.
  • Terrorists made a political request to release 234 Palestinians imprisoned in Israel.
  • German authorities tried to resuce the hostages, this failed= all hostages died, 3 terrorists injured and 5 terrorists died.
  • Terrorists known as the Black September group.
  • IOC made controversial decision to continue with the Games; opening postponed for one day.
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Moscow 1980: boycott led by the USA

  • Held in Moscow, known as the Soviet Union.
  • In 1979, Soviet Union forces invaded Afghanistan- caused major conflict.
  • Margaret Thatcher (PM) promoted the boycott of their games.
  • US president Jimmy Carter stated that the US would boycott if Soviet troops didn't withdraw within one month.
  • Controversy on whether sports and politics should combine sparked debate.
  • The GB hockey, equestrian and fencing teams chose to boycott whereas other teams attended.
  • Almost 6,000 competitors from 81 countries competeted, compared to the 10,000 expected.
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Los Angeles 1984: boycott by the Soviet Union

  • Only US bidded for the right to hose due to the previous terrorist attack and financial disaster of 1976.
  • 12 weeks before the opening, the Soviet Union announced their boycott; along with East Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary and Cuba (14 nations refused in response to 1980).
  • Soviet Union authorities blamed the commercialisation of the games and a lack of security measures= violation of the Olympic charter.
  • Soviet Union accused US of using the games for political purposes, to stir up Anti-Soviet propaganda.
  • Seen as a '*** for tat' response to the US boycott in the 1980 Moscow Olympics.
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Hosting global sporting events

Positive sporting impacts:

  • Raises the profile of sport, may lead to rise in participation/spectation of that sport.
  • New/upgraded sporting venues built for event; leaves positive legacy of sports facilities.
  • Can focus attention on minority sports; can inspire more to participate or try new sports.
  • Increase in funding for sports involved.
  • Brings increase in sponsorship/commercial income for individual participants as well as NGB's for each sport involved.

Negative sporting impacts:

  • Current trend is a gradual decline in people playing regular sport; only rises after games.
  • Facilities used for event can be left not used after event; future use not planned properly.
  • Lesser known global sports can suffer; money/resources going to big global events, often for one sport, other less well-known sports become under-funded and less well resourced.
  • Sport deviance more likely to be highlighted via media at global events.
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Hosting global sporting events

Positive social impacts:

  • More money brought to city/country; can be used for local population/support public services.
  • Pride for city/nation population; can increase sense of well-being and help with 'nation building'.
  • Imrpoved use of sports facilities by local communities.
  • Can result in improved transport systems.
  • Accomodation/other facilities built for the event can be used by the community.

Negative social impacts:

  • Some areas of the country may not get the same facility benefits as the host city.
  • Some areas of the host country don't benefit from the improvements in infrastructure and transport systems.
  • Local inhabitants may have to vacate land being used for sports venues.
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Hosting global sporting events

Positive economic impacts:

  • Increase in income= positive economic impact (more money brought to host city/country by the participators and spectators).
  • Jobs created through building of facilities, transport, infrastructure + support jobs for event.
  • Increase in tourism; related economic benefits during/after event.
  • Commercial benefits related to goods sold in the event and in the sale of event-related goods.

Negative economic impacts:

  • Building to host can be very costly.
  • Event can cost more than it raises in revenue, making an overall economic loss.
  • Benefits to employment/longer-term jobs are often exaggerated and many jobs created for the events are temporary and dry up after the event.
  • If events/participants are linked to failure/dysfunctional behaviour then sponsors and other sources of funding can be affected.
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Hosting global sporting events

Positive political impacts:

  • Individuals/political parties/leaders can gain credit and therefore more votes if a country succeeds in their bid to host; if they are then successful during event= reflects well on them.
  • Staging a global event can unify a country and give a sense of purpose, political differences aside.
  • The country/city can use the event as a 'shop window' for their culture/commerce and therefore raise the country's status in the eyes of the world (political leaders use it as an opportunity to showcase country in a positive light, to raise its status and attract more investment/trade).

Negative political impacts:

  • If the cost of event is too high/goes over budget, can become a political disadvantage with potential loss in voters/decrease in government economic resources.
  • If something goes wrong at the event, can be politically disadvantageous, politicians have to take some responsibility.
  • If the hosts perform poorly, can reflect badly on ruling political party.
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Hosting global sporting events

More negative political impacts:

  • Negative environmental impacts can result in a decrease in popularity with the ruling politicians.
  • If the legacy of the event is percevied to be negative, then this can be politically damaging.
  • Protests by athletes and spectators can be embarassing for a country's ruling political party (Black power demonstration in 1968 Mexio City games).

Summary:

  • Advantages include increased income for city, improving participation and interest in sport, creating jobs and improving infrastructure, increasing tourism, pride to nation and raising the country's status in the eyes of the world.
  • Disadvantages include danger to national and personal security, escalating costs, lack of sustained participation and interest in sport, inconvenience of increased traffic and environmental pollution, and if the host team performs badly, a bad reflection on the hosts with economic consequences.
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