Global population changing
- Over past 200 years population increased faster over time.
- result in lack of resoucres.
- Birth rates increased
- death rates decreased
- medical research improved
difficult to predict future changes as different places have different increase rates:
- some places are decreasing
- some are increasing
- policies could be introduced
- anything could happen
- could have world wide disease spread.
Demographic Transition Model
What is it?
- A model where different stages show where countries can be found on the model due to their death rate, birth rate, natural in/decrease and totaly population.
- shows population sturcture can change over time in different countries due to variations in birth and death rates.
What does it tell us?
- birth rate and death rate, so the natural in/decrease
- total population
what factors influence Birth and Death rates?
- % working in agriculture
- medical facilities/ health care
- women education
Somalia case study
- Developing country in Africa
Somalia has a youthful population with more young than elderly.
- has high birth and death rates
- lack of opportunities
- emigrated from somalia to live in england with his dad
- took up running, got coached and joined a team
- won 2 olympic medals in 2012.
Italy case study
- Developed country in Europe with an ageing population (more elderly than young) and low brith and death rates.
lots of economically active, less young dependents.
- will later result with a higher life expectancy (less deaths and births.)
Causes of ageing population:
- better medical resources, care and health awareness.
- less employed, lower birth rates and eventually high death rates- pressure on government pensions.
- Pro-natalist policy to get people to have children, offer a reward, so they can later support the elderly.
China case study
- most populated country in world (1.4 billion) and has an anti-natalist policy (one child policy)
How it works:
- 1 child per family unless in rural areas then can be 2 or have to pay for all children`s uprbinging.
- have forced abortions if found out to have next siblings due.
- granny police are community workers who enforce the law
- now wont run out of resources due to size of their population.
- better quality of life for each child born.
- not a big pressure on jobs, food, water, the environment.
- Smaller families- no aunts and uncles.
- boys are prefered- sometimes girls chucked out, die, or put in care/foster homes
Population and migration keywords and meanings
points based: A system that assesses how useful someone, who wants to migrate`s, skills would be.
frontex: An agency which manages countries borders, trying to stop illegal immigration, trafficking.
cultural diversity: various ethinicity, cultural groups in a society.
asylum seeker: someone who`s fleeing something, wants to stay somewhere, but hasn`t been granted status of a refugee
emigrant: Someone who leaves a country.
immigrant: someone who goes into a country.
net migration: difference between immigrants and emmigrants in an area over a period of time. (+ = increasing pop.)
Open door: Policy where the country with it allows people to migrate freely into it.
refugee: someone who has left their home and has been allowed to stay in a certain place elsewhere.
forced migration: Having to leave their home to flee something, war, violence, crime, natural disaster.
natural increase: difference between birth and death rates.
causes of population- push and pull factors
- reasons to move away from the place they are/were in.
- low quality of life there
- poor health care, housing, education, environment
- family issues.
- reasons to move to a certain place.
- opportunities available there- jobs
- better facilities - housing, safety, schooling, health care
- closer to family and friends.
migration policies- open door, points based
- increases population size and helps decrease average age - solve ageing population crisises. (advantages)
- more people to do less desirable jobs (advantage), but is easier for criminals to escape/ get into the country (disadvantage)
- decrease amount of resources and impact environment- pollution (disadvantage)
- jobs in higher demand- higher unemployment rate (disadvantage)
- more qualified people that can help the society they would be joining (advantage)
- harder for criminals to sneak through (advantage)
- less people willing to do needed jobs - care workers (disadvantage)
- result in lowering of birth rates as they would be educated so they will want jobs not families first (disadvantage)
Open door policy is more useful for countries with ageing populations as the immigrants would increase the birth rates whereas points based would probably lower it as the women who migrate into the country would probably be well educated- not looking to have kids early.
Impacts of migration-host and origin countries
impacts on host countries:
- more pollution
- maybe overcrowding
- more pressure on government to support migrants
- unemployment rates rising
impacts on origin countries:
- less workers
- population decrease
Examples of migration- forced, economic
- war in syria is affecting all nearby countries
- people fleeing north africa to try and get into europe
- turkey and greece are having to rescue lots of migrants from the mediteranean.
- wannt to get away from war and get better quality of life in europe.
- moving from a place in hope of better opportunities in the new place
- mo farah moving from somalia to live with his dad in england
- left his family back in somalia to stay with his dad because his mum sent him in hope of him getting a better future if he grew up there.