Gleichschaltung - Coordination

Gleichschaltung is a way of controlling the German Public

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The Nazi Party put a band on the centre party and in July 1933, it was dissolved. They liquadated the state party and the DVP. They had a coalition with the Nationalists (DNVP) and then pressurised them to get rid of them. In May 1933, the leader of the nationalists was found dead in his home, official story was suicide, rumours of the Nazi involvement. By the end of June, the party was agreed to be dissolved.

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Trade unions

Trade unions were impresse with Hitler's willingness to set up job creation schemes, and agreed to take part in the procession in Berlin. They failed to save the unions. Hitler moved quickly to decapitate the movement and to prevent it from acting. On the 2nd of may, the SS and SA occupied trade union offices and leading officers were beaten and put into concentration camps. The unions were then replaced by the German labour front and all workers and employers had to enrol.

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Catholic Church-

Bishops werre ready to negotiate an agreement with Hitler which would preserve independence, The Concordat act was signed by the Vatican and the German government which appeared to be generous to the court. Factors such as Religious Freedom and extension of privelleges. Hitler's plan was to end the churches intervention in politics, the concordat was only temporary until he gained complete control.

Evangelical Church:

Hitler presumed that these churches would be easily controlled, and hoped to re-organise the Church into a united reich church, helping them gain control. However the election of a Nazi Reich bishop was challenged as they were unexpectantly opposed. 2 Protestant Bishops were arrested after Muller attempted to intimidate the opposition - leading to the pastures emergency league, setting up an emergency church. In July, Hitler created a new ministry of church affairs failing to co-ordinade with the German protestants.

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Employers, Business associations and agricultural interest froups were put in to one simple organisations which was forced under nazi control. Business men and industrialists declared their loyalty to the regime, they were able to manage their own affairs and were not subbordinated to the Nazi Party. It was recommended in June 1933 that the german industry should pay towards the 'Adolf Hitler' donation to express towards the elimination of trade unions. It was seen to be a way of making voluntary donations which would make more money for the nazi party.

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Culture, Education and Media

Education - difficult to control but the ministry compelled the states to introduce new stllabuses in to schools and universities. All teachers and lecturers associations were to join the nation socialist teaching organisation. In Universities, Gangs of nazi students terrorised the left wing and independednt minded lecturers - forcing them to resign.

Media: the nazis struggled, in spring 1933 Goebbels controlled broadcasting and made sure that news coverage in the newspapers and the radio favoured the Government.

Culture: All 'intelectual' workers were forced to join the reich chamber of culture, so a strict check could be kept on their activities.

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The army was able to escape coordination and retain its own traditions, General Von Blomberg banned army officers from joining the nazi party. Hitler managed to win over teh army when he met its senior officers in February 1933, promising to respect the army's traditions and keep politics natural.

He informed them of his prospect of rearmament, the reintroduction of Conscription and the conquest of Eastern Europe.

Hitler planned to set up a Reich Defense council and insured Von Blomberg a seat under his own chairmanship. Hitler insured that he decided all isssues rather than the commander in chief of army.

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Most Effective: Political Parties

2nd Effective: Trade Unions - Easily dissolved.

3rd Effective: Army - Harder but got there and in the end.

4th Effective - Culture, Education and Media

Least effective: Religion - Only succesful in the catholic church.

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