- Ignatius Loyola inspirator,heart and driving force.
- founded 1534 by Ignatius and 6 companions
- Grew attention due to abilities and enthusiasum for surving the church.
- support of Pope Paul III ensured success
Bull 1540 .
- 1556 1,000 members
- spiritual excersive finally printed 1548
Council of Trent
1st; deal with problem of salvationa and justification of 'faith alone'
- both theologians commented on the docterines of the nature of mas, including real presense. Charles wanted compromise
- pope julius
- bishops relieved from oath of obedience to papacy
- authoriy of council superior to papacy
- fell apart over the critical issue of the nature of the authority of the pope.
- stopped sale of indulgences
- clerical celebacy upheld
- less abuses within papacy such as no absenteesim
Luther key factor in reformation
- Indulgences, concept introduced by pope leo x to pay for st.peters basilica.
Tetzel sold them for albrecht to pay back to loan for his 2nd archbishopric
- 95Theses 1517
- 1518 rome formally responded to him- called to recant ( refused)
Eck then was sent to debate with openly with luther at leipzig (attempt to publically humiliuate luther) failed]
- Luther branded a Heretic in Papal Bull-- luther burned
- Printed his works,300,000 by 1520
- 1521 Diet of worms
recant? refused, German Princes support
- Mullett luther being a 'figure of titanic greatness'
- vital: repeated act of defiance.
- Fredirck the Wise protected Luther
- Pettegree luther influential till 1521. afterwards luther simply became 'cantankerous'
- Other people
1526 Diet of speyer princes spoke with charles, deal to allow princes to choose own faith
Charles worried by lutheranism spread so retracted promise 1529.
Response... diet of augsberg 1530
- Melanchthon continued to spread word of lutheranism
Pettegree agrued he replaced luther.
- Charles resisted
hesse and John of saxony established schmalkaldic league 1531.
Invaded Wittenburg 1534.
- 1546 Luther dies
- 1550 league of Torgau formed.
- 1555 charles sign peace of augsberg
Importance of consistory in Geneva 1541-1564
- enforced high standards of religious and social behaviour, detailed records
reduced threat to calvin as bestowed consequences to threats
- consistory had a ' much freer hand in bringing wrong-doers to justice' Randell
was a high heirarchal group that could influence punishment
- detailed records meant clear idea who to watch for trouble
- dealt with moral issues
Geneva was 'ripe for reform'
- calvin welcomed as offered order structure and control. removed all oposition by 1555
- unlike luther, calvin was organised
1541 ecclesiastical ordinances drafted.. created consistory
- spiritual welfare of city, control and influence.
- strong disapline and punishment
EG. Pierre made public apology for calling calvin 'picard' and accusing him of false docterine.
- made up of gentry
- power concentrated at the top
easy to assert authority and influence over laity
Although there was opposition 1540s-1550s calvin stuck to his religious ideas with the support of the little council and consistory
all work together to enforce theology
Importance of calvins teachings in organising the
- ecclesiastic ordinances 1541
geneva 1536- kicked out 1538 due to forced sign to confession of faith- called back 1540
- church/state collaboration
- already beena refomation in geneva...calvin successful as organised
- John Knox 'geneva was a perfect school of christ'
- institutes of a christain relgion 1536
appealed to everyone (radical- predestination) or otherwise- compromise on the eucharist- compromised between conservative lutheranisim and radical anabaptists
- sola scripture ( Bible as solo authority)
- double predestination
all hope and responsibility in the hands of their god
- still was some opposition ( false prophet, minority in geneva)
- Believed he was the voice of god
not challeneged as much by those in positions of authority
- constitutional lawyer- cleaver
- not emotionally attached to the reformation
- he wanted \geneva ( A walled-city) to be a prototype for a greater more ambitious reformation (France)
- 4000 sermons (1538-64)
- took a long time
- 1555 unchalleneged
Calvins reaction to opposition ( relgious and social)
- refused to preach unless everyone adhered to his wishes/theology
Pierre- insisted on a public apology
- Ami Perrin- calvins success (Libertines)
majority of the syndics
calvin ensured that the next syndics were in his favour
Not tactful/polically minded when dealing with mobs (easter sunday 1538)
- Ripe for reform
- previsously exposed to protestant ideas and theology
- voted for reform 1536- evangelical city
- Berne had reformed 1528
- abandoned catholicism needed the next step= CALVIN
- 1517 faded... calvins academy reputation feel
didnt eastblish across the whole of europe--- thrieved where cuty was weak
- Lutheranism still v.strong
- calvinism weake/
Ecclesiastical Ordinances (collaboration between c
- A council of the devil (calvin)
- consistory had to report to the little council to enforce/approve/decide punishment
- orders of the church elected by the state (POWER/control)
- Drafted 1541
Law November 1541
calvins condition=taking responsibility of spirtitual welfare
- Draft approved by political authorities
calvinist church order in place
- Calvin believed he was the voice of God- influenced the council (political clash)
- Drafted by a committe of ministers and councillors in 2 weeks- revised by council of 200
- ordinanaces introduced discipline and order
initally not well recieved,people refused to sign 'confession of faith'
Little council odered everyone to sign the confession 1538
- Geneva council made changes to original draft (power)
- 1536 city voted for control and reformation- council ordered church
compromise between conservative lutheranism and anabaptists
council exiled Luther
- Ordinanaces set up the schools indoctrinating generations with calvinism
- Calvin rarely attended meetings but council sought his advice
- Academy approved in 1559
- All officers of the church elected by council
- council invited calvin back sept 1541
- Ecclesistical ordinances co-written (collaboration) changed endlessly untill 1555 ( calvins powers unchanged)
- High standard of calvinism- if disobeyed/sinned/strayed, counil enforced discipline
- 1538 syndics opposed to calvin
elected by pastors
confirmed by council
12 laymen chosen from council
Chosen by Pastors
confirmed by council
elected by council
Difference between Calvin and Luther
- Calvin was a refugee, and accidental.
- Luther was on purpose and put his own head on the chopping board
- Calvin was a constitutional lawyer of the reformation
- Luther was a catalyst,idol and monk
- Geneva had already ungone a reformation
- Luther was starting from scratch
- Calvin was personally involved in rule
- luther devolved involvement to princes/league/melancthon
- Geneva=walled city
- Germany=vast country
- Geneva had one council
- german princes were autonomous and several of them convert to lutheranism
- Calvin left no room for misinterpritation
- Luther did- peasants war and knights war
- Calvin used strict 'parenting'
- luther used 'nice parenting' Doucle/single predestinantion
- Calvins ideas could spread because it was based in latin
- luther german audience, limited
Case studies of Calvins opposition
- reopened taverns which were closed because of popular public pressure
Ami Perrin 1553
- council normally in favour of Calvin. he forms libertines
Michael servatus 1553
- burned by council, calvin disagreed, wanted him hung
- sent letters to calvin 'big pot belly' arrested then got hung. critical of calvin and religion
- elected by calvin for his calvinist views which he thought he had. Castillo said the book 'song of songs' was an ****** poem, shouldnt be in the bible.
- attack on scripture
- showing how loyal calvinist scholors werent constant on views of sola-scripture.
why was Luther summoned to Worms 1521
- New ideas- princes independence
needed princes on side (charlesV)
- Fredrick being able to be part of the electing of the kings of rome
Charles wanted him on side
- Fredrick sees luthers effect so charles wanted to remove threat/suspician of papacy
- 1520 Adress to the christian nobility
finance his war
pressure on king with the continues war with france.
Why the peasants revolted 1524
- sense of rebellion
tired of being treated like slaves, bad living conditions,little income and large taxes
wanted autonomy so wrote 'Twelves articlesof the peasantry listed'
- Luther was their devine support and gave them strong reason to fight.
'Priesthood of all believers'
- high vib of anti-clericalism and radicalism
Knights war, iconlastic riots- gave haope
finalised with Thomas MUnster 'living word of god'
good opportunity and clear leadership.
1524 removal of images, and icons
1529 colloquy of Marburg. Luther and Zwingli met at Marburg. Both had different view of the last supper
Zwingli more democratic than Luther as had council support whereas Luther had princely
Radical and Zwingli
Karlstadt: disagreed with Luther's views on sacraments
Zwickau prophets: influenced Munzer
Munzer joined peasants revolts
Huts. Re baptised man, doesn't like other anabaptists
Hubmaier. Christians should still work the state
Hutterites. Ended up in America,no polygamy, sheep stealer
No infant baptism
Not hierarchical communism
Why they were hated
Low infant mortality
Viewed as sentencing children to hell
Crying church loosing control
Threatened social order
1529 diet of Speyer cast as out laws
Guilty of heresy
Against rc church and Lutheranism
Sattler was against infant baptism
Priesthood of all believers
- the eurcharist
no such place as pugatory
pope had no control (pre-destination)
Down to luck
- Luther was just a figurehead
- luther sheltered behind the germans long standing distrust of rome and its work
- 'Luther would have been a more powerful symbol dead; than alive.
- 'proper end for a false phrophet'
- german transater most imporatant.
- titanic greatness'
- preacher of vast output and great depth'
- luther was an opportunistic