- Government printed more money to pay for WWI (1914)
- Weimar printed more money for post war shortages and asked for longer to pay first reperations (1918-1922)
- In 1923, The French troops invaded the Ruhr to take payments in raw materials and goods. Workers went on strike.
- Government printed more money to pay stikers and keep up with lost money
- November 1923- German Mark Worthless
- Widespread panic- not enough money to pay for things.
- Businesses Bankrupt
- Pensioners lost money
- Blamed weimar
- Prices rose quickly
- Some people could pay off loans and mortgages
- Farmers paid more for food
Munich Putsch November 1923
Seen as failure in short term to the Nazis but a success in the long term.
Bavarian goverment were right wing and believed they would support him.
Weimar was unpopular
Nazis believed they were ready: Hitler was an established leader, they had 500,000 supporters and the SA
Army Leader General Ludendorff was close to Hitler. Persuade Army to support them.
FAIL- Not organised, police prepared, no support in Munich, Bavarian goverment did not join the nazis, Army nor police supported the party, Hitler imprisoned and Nazi party banned.
SUCCESS- Caused leaders to rethink tactics, Nazis gained publicity and Mein Kampf was a best seller. Sympathetic to Nazi Ideas. Hitlers Sentence shortened.
Munich Putsch November 1923 (What Happened?)
SA burst into a Munich Beer Hall where Kahr the head of the Bavarian Goverment was in a meeting. Hitler told them they were taking over the goverment. A gun battle occured the next day with Ludendorff Hitler and the supporters against the police. Ludendorff and Hitler arrested and the putsch failed.
Weimar Recovery 1924-1929
Gustav Stresemann (German Chancellor):
Called off passive resistance and agreed to pay. In 1923, France withdrew in 1925.
Introduced New currency the Rentenmark in 1923 (Stabalised Currency)
Reichsmark restored value of German Money in 1924
Negotiated Dawes Plan in 1924 with US to organise reporations
1924-30 US loans improved german industry and paid back reporations
1925 Locarno treaties gauranteed boarders and improved UK and France relationship
Streseman negotiated German Entry to League of Nations in 1926
Young Plan negotiated in 1929 reduced reperations and France agreed to leave Rhineland early.
But... Germany reliant on US loans, High unemployment, farming was depressed.
Nazi Party 1924-28
- By 1928 the Nazi Party had over 100000 members.
- Head quarters in Munich but set up branches all over Germany
- Targetted to Rural areas in '28 because Farmers were finding times particulary difficult.
- Organisations set up for Nazi Youth, Teachers League etc.
- SA image changed to Order and discipline and young men encouraged to join.
How the Nazis got there message across
Rallies- Regularly held huge rallies with Marches and powerful speeches from Hitler.
Meetings- Ran evening classes to educate members at public speaking to spread Nazi ideas
Propaganda- Josef Goebbels managed this, Targeted specific groups like working class with Anti Semitism
Posters and Newspapers- Printed Propaganda
Mein Kampf- Hitlers autobiography became a bestseller promoting his aims.
Support- Young people, Skilled workers, Farmers, Anti Communists
The Great Depression
October 1929- Wall Street Crash. Banks and Businesses ruined.
Triggered a worldwide depression
US stopped lending Germany Money and demanded Loans repaid.
German businesses had to pay back loans and taxes increased
German government made unemplyment cuts and wages were cut.
Families suffered terrible poverty due to no jobs no work and no benefits.
Nazi Party 1929-1932
In 1928 Nazis won 12 seats in the Reichstag
In 1930 107 seats
and In 1932 230 seats
Propaganda by Goebbels included, Posters, Radio, Rallies, Newspapers, Parades and Marches
Hitler was main man in the Nazi campaign: He was portayed as ending the German Crisis blaming the Weimar, communists and Jews for the problems.
The SA (brownshirts) image improved, they continued to disrupt the meetings of Rival Parties.
In the July '32 elections Nazis won seats because they shared dislikes and public believed Propaganda.
Agricultural Workers, Middles Classes, Working Classes, Young People, Upper classes and Women
Hitler becomes Chancellor 30th January 1933
In July 1932, Von Papen's (New Chancellor) Party loses seats and the Nazis become the largest party, However Hindenburg did not trust Hitler and refused to make him Chancellor.
Hindenburg removes Von Papen in December 1932 and makes Von Schleicher Chancellor.
Due to no support Von Schleicher is forced to resign. Hitler becomes Chancellor in January 1933.
Von Papen persuaded Hindenburg to appoint Hitler. He agreed only if Von Papen was made Vice- Chancellor.
They both believed Hitler could be controlled.
Key Events 1933
The Reichstag Fire was considered a turning point in Hitlers challenge to become Fuhrer.
- On the 27th February 1933 the Reichstag was Burned down.
- Van der Lubbe was a Dutch Communist who confessed to starting the fire.
- Hitler blamed the German communist party and arrested 4000 communists under the Emergency Decree Hindenburg passed. Some believe the Nazis started the fire.
The Election in March 1933 saw the Nazis win even more seats than ever.
- The enabling act was passed and some factors included the loss of communists not taking up the Reichstag seats.
- Hitler made deals with some of the other parties.
- The SA surrounded meetings and threatened opposition.
The enabling act gave Hitler power to make any laws he wanted without the consent of the Reichstag. Germany was no longer a democracy.
Hitler could now get rid of all opposition to the Nazis.
Key Events 1934
The night of the long knives and the death of Hindenburg helped the Nazis to consolidate power.
On the 30th June 1934, Ernst Rohm and other SA leaders were arrested by the SS and taken to Munich where they were shot. Von Schleicher was also killed. Not many rivals were left and the Army swore allegiance to Hitler and the SS were a major force.
The army wanted the SA removed and were powerful enough to overthrow Hitler.
Hindenburg died in August 1934. Hitler declared himself Fuhrer
Nazi Terror State
Laws made it crime to listen to foreign radio stations, speak out against Hitler.
Anyone who broke the laws were arrested by the SS.
The gestapo spied on the public.
Prisoners taken to concentration camps.
SS- est. 1925 were Hitlers personal bodyguards
After 1929 they were led by Himmler
Acted as Police of Nazi State
Ran concentration camps
Got rid of SA during the night of the long knives
Goebbels was Nazi propaganda controller.
Posters with nazi beliefs displayed everywhere
The cinema showed propaganda but entertainment films with subtle nazi messages
Hitlers radio speeches were broadcasted everywhere
Artists encouraged to highlight nazi ideas.
Large rallies made people either scared of the Nazis or proud of them
Newspapers and foreign radio stations band if anti nazi.
Nazi beliefs and Christain Beliefs often clashed
Hitler was all powerful leader God had Ultimate Authority
Ayran Race superior Everyone equal in goods eyes
War and discipline and violence required peace should be strived for
strong should dominate the weak strong should look after the weak
Hitler worried about opposition by catholics due to their loyalty, catholic schools etc
By 1934 catholic schools were disapearing and by 1937 organisations were illegal.
Catholic Concordat July 1933- Catholics could worship and run schools and organisations. Pope had to stay out of politics. Broke down within a year
General oppostion included- resisisting nazi rule, like listening to banned music telling anti nazi jokes, hiding jews, speaking out against Hitler and trying to kill him. However in general there was little opposition.
Lack of opposition included reasons such as- private resistance, policies improved german lives, opposition groups banned, fear of **, gestapo and concentration camps, there were many informers and there was genuine support.
Many catholic priests and protestant ministers preached against policies, thousands sent to concentration camps.
T4 euthanasia project in 1941 ended when a Cardinal spoke out against it.
Most arrested, sent to concentration camps before being executed.
The White Rose Group - Set up at a munich university by Hans and Sophie Scholl and Kurt Huber
- Non Violent
- Let people know about the atrocities being comitted
- Distributed leaflets opposing war and the Nazis
- Leaders Eventaully caught and executed
Edelweiss Pirates- Opposed the Hitler Youth. Did not conform to Nazi society. Spread allied propaganda, gave shelter to army deserters as well graffiting anti nazi phrases.
Killed head of gestapo in 1944. Some caught and publicly hung.
Army had to swear an oath of loyalty, opposition in 1940s began through defeats and men not liking SS brutality. Army was hitlers greatest fear, highly trained and access to weapons.
Operation Valkyrie (July Plot) (1944) saw Von Stauffenburg attempt to kill Hitler at a conference, with a briefcase bomb. 5746 executed- highlighting his fear of the army.
Policies towards women
Nazi ideal woman was Natural, wore traditional clothing, aryan, sturdily built, non drinker or smoker, would marry and have lots of children, would not go to uni, would stay at home rather than work with the attitude (KINDER,KUCHE,KIRCHE) Children, Kitchen, Church
Employed women lost their jobs, number of employed married women fell during 1933-36 but with the outbreak of the war it rose again. Employers paid women less.
Women should get married with a law encouraging marriage, lending money to the couples if the wife left work.
Women encouraged to have more than four children, being let off a quarter of their loans. German Womens enterprise gave women medals for this. Also running classes for women. Few women had more than 2 children however.
Hitler wanted loyal Nazis prepared for their roles in the third reich.
Girls prepared for motherhood, Boys prepared to be soldeirs.
School compulsory until aged 14, with girls and boys seperated into different schools.
Teachers had to be members of the Nazi Party, those not teaching Nazi Ideaology were sacked, teacher camps taught them how to introduce nazi ideaology. Most teachers in the Nazi Teachers association.
15% spent on PE, girls taught domestics whilst boys taught science and millitary skills. Traditional subjects like History, German, Maths etc still taught. Race studies and eugenics taught.
Lessons began and ended with Hitler salute, text books had to be approved, subjects glorified germany and Racial ideas and Anti Semitism ideas introduced in subjects
The Nazi Youth
4 groups being Young German Folk, Young girls, Hitler Youth, League of German Maidens
Nazis had control over the children, created loyal nazis, from 1939 became compulsory, groups became involved within the war effort, and the Hitler Youth had become a millitary reserve.
However- Not all youngsters joined, some children did not enjoy the Youth Clubs, parents did not like it due to their allegiance to Hitler and encouragment to spy on their parents.
Boys- Shooting, helped fire brigade during war, formed brigades to defend Berlin, Millitary Based
Girls- Cookery, Housework and needlework, looking for a husband, learning about babies.
In 1933 Germany was still suffering from the depression.
New Plan (1933-37)- Run by Hjalmar Shacht, Minister of the Economy
-Reduce unemployment and make Germany Self Sufficient
- Limited Imports
- Made trade agreements with other countries (Plan successful providing more jobs)
Four Year Plan (1936 Onwards)- Run by Hermann Goring
- Preparing for war, Germany still dependant on foreign imports
- Used prisoners as labour force, creating jobs in making weapons,tanks, ships etc
National Labour Service (RAD) - Began during weimar and continued. 1935 became compulsory of men aged 18-25 to serve 6 months on the scheme. Job creation schemes and public works. Low pay and long boring hours. Built 7000 km of Autobahns, Constructed buildings, helped construct the olympics.
The Germans Lives
More Jobs created, more men in work No rights, and no trade unions
Average weekly wages rose Cost of living also incresed
Better conditions (SdA) Average working hours increased
Better leisure activities (KdF) Few workers could afford the activities
1) Some women wanted to work, other happy to stay at home
2) Benefitted from increased food prices. Lost workers to army, but help from RAD
3) Businesses benefitted from Jewish establishments being closed.Some used forced labour.
Ideas and Policies on Race
Hitler Keen to introduce Pure German Aryans.
Nazi Racial Hierachy-
Aryans- White Western Europeans- Eastern European- Black People and Gypsies- Jews
Race Farms set up. Aryans children- SS only recruited aryans
Treatment of Untermenschen (Not part of Hitlers Race)-
1935- Nuremburg Laws- No Aryan could marry a gypsie, black person or Jew
Mixed race children sterilised
In 1938, gypsies had to registered
Most Gypsies sent to concentration camps
But- Non Perfect aryans not acceptable- Mentally Ill steralised- Disabled murdered- Gays put in Concentration camps- Work Shy people put in Concentration Camps