GCSE History B (Modern World)

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Treaty Of Versaille

  • The decisions were made by the big three
  • Clemanceu(France)-wanted to cripple germany as they were bodered with germany
  • David Lloyd George(Britan)-The public wanted to cripple germay but still wanted to trade with Germany
  • Woodrow Wilson(USA)-He wanted a fair and lasting peace and didnt want germany to get revenge after they had recovered 
  • Artical 231 was the war guilt cause and it made germany take the blame for the war
  • £6.6billion reperations hade to be paid this meant germany would have beeing paying up untill 1984
  • 10% of german land was lost,they lost the sarr which was an industrial area, the polish corridor which would help poland trade and become strong as it had ports, they also lost alscas lorrane was returned to france
  • Ahshluss was forbidden so Germany couldnt join with Austria
  • The rhineland was demilliterised so that germany oculdnt invade france it was like a saftey net
  • there army was limited to 100,000 men which was small for a contry the size of germany
  • conscripton was banned there was no airforce
  • the league of nations was set up
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The Wiemar Republic 1919-1924

  • Ebert was the frst democratic leader of Germany
  • January 5th-12th-there was a Spartasist(leftwing) revolution lead by rose lukemburgh and kerl liebknecht the friekorps stopped this(rightwing & ex-army) this happened again in 1920
  • the revolution was succsessful for a time in bavaria the friekorps killed 600 people to put it down
  • Ebert was hated by Communists after he made a deal with the Frikorps
  • March 13th-17th- The frikorps revolted this was thr Kapp Putsch 5000 ex-solidiers marched into Berlin to stopp them Ebert called a general strike as the army didnt want to shoot ther ex-commrades
  • November 8th 1923- the Munich Putsch was lead by Hitler it failed and hitler served a short sentence in Prison
  • in 1922 the reperations were not paid as the german economy was collapsing and there was a general strike the french let this slide
  • in 1923 germany failed to pay the reperations so the French invaded the Ruhr to take what they were owed in raw materials
  • ebert printed money to pay the french but this cause hyper inflation
  • in 1923 Gustav stressmen was elected he stoped hyperinflaton to he printed the rentenmark he also borrwed money from america (Daws Plan) to start the german economy
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The Wiemar Republic 1924-1929

  • Under the Daws plan germany borrowed 800million markes and by 1927 German Production was at the same level it had been before the war
  • Berlin became a center of culture which was hatted by communists and traditoalists
  • There were no large putschs between 1923-1929 as te extrem left and right had given iup an in 1930 the nazis picked up just under 20% of the vote so they were the 2nd most ppuar party
  • in 1925 Stressman signed the locarno traty which agrred they germany would make no attempt change the western border
  • in 1929 stessman negotiated the Young Plan which reduced the amount of reperations to be paid


  • The economy was based on american lans which could be recalled at any time and it created a large gap between the rich and poor
  • The "Moral Decline"lead to movements like the Wandervigel which wanted to return to traditonal values
  • Von hindenburgh became president he was a right winger and didnt belive in democracy
  • Nationalists attcked sttressman for joining the leauge and signing the Locarno Treaty which was an acceptance of versaille
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The Rise of the Nazi Party

  • Hitler blamed ebert and democracy for the problems in germay after the stock market crash
  • Democracy was also blamed as he didnt agree with it and many remeber good times under the Kiser
  • Communists were also attched as they destroyed property but the brown shirts did this
  • Jews owned big banks that didnt lend money to the poor and small businesses this was why the jews were blamed for the problems
  • Hitler showed ange rwhich is what the people wanted to see as he looked like he would take action
  • Democracy looked like a faliure as there wew elections in 1928,1930,1932 x2 and emergency pwers had been used multipul times
  • Hitler also said that weimar was over the top and so had caused a moral decline

Becomeing Chancelor...
In 1923 the nazi party was the largest party (but not a majority) in the riechstag so he demanded the chencellorshipbut instead von papen becam the chancellorbut he had no support so vonsvhlicher was appointed but he was fourced to resign in 1933 von papen and hindenburgh made an aggrement and thought they could control hitler if the was chancellor

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Nazi Germany 1933-1934

  • January 13th 1933-hitler became chancellor
  • hitler called another election to try and gain a majority in the rechstag so he could pass laws this wuldnt have happened if the reichstag haddent taken place
  • The fire gave him a reason to arrest or scare his oppositionso in march 1933 the Nazi party gained a majority
  • Hitler could now pass the enableing act which allowed him to pass laws withought the input from the reichstag
  • By june 30th 1934 Hitler is  virtual dictaor
  • Night Of The Long Knifes-this was when hitler eliminated and scared his opposition Ernst Rohm and 400 generals of the brown shirtsand other politions were imprisoned or assasinated
  • In August Hindenburgh died and Hitle had all the power he had used the democratic system instead of violence to become a dictator
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Nazi Control Of Germany

The Gestapo...

  • These were the secret state police and were feared by German Citizens
  • Under the command of Reinhard Heydric ther gestapo arested acitizens on suspition and imprisoned people wthout trial
  • the citizens bellived they had power and informed on each other as they belived the gestapo would find it out ayway

The SS...

  • The SS was formed in 1925 and was lead bu Hinric Himler
  • There were sub-unts called the death heads and the Waffren-SS
  • by 1939 there were 1million members of the death  heads (concentstration camp workers)

The Police And Courts...

  • High ranking police jobs were given to nazis and were controled by Himmler
  • the polic ignored Nazi crimes and judges who found Nazis guilty were fired
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Nazi Control Of Germay Cont.

Concentration Camps...

  • Concentration camps were set up on as soon as Hitler took power they were makeshift prisons in old factries and warehouses
  • In 1930 death in camps were common but they were no tdeath camps untill 1941
  • Prisoners were fourced to workand food was limited
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Keeping Control

The Church...

  • in 1933 a concordant was signed soo Hitler would leave the church and the church schools
  • He attempted t set up a Reich church but Germans stayed loyal to there local church
  • Most reliogous people stayed out of the nazis way
  • Bishop Galen critisised the policy of executing disabled babys he had strong support the Nazis did try yo scilence him
  • Pastor Martin Niemoller was a high profille critic and spent 1938-1945 in a concenteation camp
  • Dietrich Bonhoffer formed an alternative church he helped jewws escape Germany he was hug in 1945


  • There was some resistace e.g- Oskar Schindler who riskeed his like saveing Jews
  • After 1933 there was an economic recovery seen as the nazis doing and unemployment was reduced to 30%
  • the was susses i foreig affares the treaty was broken ad ther was no reprecutions
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Nuremburgh Rallies...

  • the Nurembrgh Rallies showed uniformity and orde which is what germans wanted
  • after 1929 germans wanted this

1936 Olympics...

  • this would show the world the aryan race and they did top the medal table but jassie owens was the star of the games as he won 4 medals and smashed 2 world records
  • people were impressed the streets were cean and there was no anti-social behavior maby a strong leader was what everyone needed but they found it odd that people with guns were at the edge og the strees


  • Everything had to have a pro-Nazi message or it was banned (films books ect.)
  • in 1933 short wave radios were given out which onlky picked up german stations anyone listenig to foreign radio was arressted
  • hitlers speeches were played throught speackers in the street
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Children In Nazi Germany

The Hitler Youth...

  • The Hitler Youth was for young boys in germany and they would join in wth parades and marches
  • the Hitler Youth often went on summer camps where they learnt about nature and wepons they also stayed physicaly fit

The League Of German Maidens...

  • This was the female equivilent of the Hitler Youth
  • The girls learnt how to cook ad clean as welll as this they stayed fit to prepare for child birth and to stay attractve

The "Swing" Movement...

  • these were middle class teenagers  they held parties and listened to banned musc
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Children In Nazi Germant Cont.

The Edelweisse Pirates...

  • these were working class teenagers they went camping and sang songs mocking the nazis
  • they attached the hitler youth and in 1942 28 groups were disbandes and 12 leaders were publicly hung
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Women In Nazi Germany

  • The nazi party was male dominated and held traditonal views aout women and there roles
  • in the 1930's working women were seen as keeping men out of jobs and there was pressure to restore the "Natural Balance"
  • Finacal insentives were given to married couples who had 4 or more children
  • between 1942-1945 the demand for war supplies split the nazi party as the wanted to be traditonal bt the war demand the need for women in the work place
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What Did Germany Gain?

Economic Recovery & Rearmaments...

  • the nazis used radical methods to solve the contries problems
  • Economist DR Hjalmar Schacht organised germays finances and created the Natonal Labour Service which sent men on public work projects
  • this created Autobahns and railways and new houseing
  • Hitler also introduces rearmament and reintroduces conscription the 4 year plan was also anounces which boosted National Pride

The Workers...

  • Hitler praised workers with propoganda
  • there was the Strength Throught Joy scheme which rewarded workers with cut price luxury holidays
  • may brought Volkswagen Betteles and saved 5 marks a week as part of a state scheme
  • the Beauty Of Labour movement improved working conditions in germany with low cost canteens and washing facilities
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What Did Germany Gain? Cont.

Farming Communities...

  • A series of policies were introduced to help farmes like the reich food estate this was a central power which didtributed food across Germany
  • they also created the Reich Entailed Farm Lawwhich gave farmewrs steate protection so land couldnt be taken if loans werent paid
  • The nazis belives in "Blood And Soil"w which ment that the race was based on strong farmers

Big Bussiness And The Middle Class

  • some middle class people were grateful for nazis but others werntthey lied the order they borught to Germany
  • but owneres of small businesses struggled as the nazis too them to help with rearmament
  • Big bussineses benifited as they didnt need to worry about trade unions and many gained form rearmament

The national community- people saw themselves as a nation not as 1 sole person

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The Persicution Of Minorities

Famlies with hereditory disesed were strilies (over 300,000 men and women were sterilised),Euthanasia programs were set up in 1939 and over 500 handicapped children were starved or given a lethal injection after protestes this stopped

Hitler And The Jews...

  • in the early 1929's anti-semitism was common hitlers ideas were not new but radical the hater came form the wrst part of hitlers life when he was poor and failed to become an artist
  • in 1935 the nuremburgh made it illegal to be jewish and german jews and germans could o longer marry
  • in 1938 a young jew illed a diplomate and the nazi party launched an attach as plain dre**ed ** officers destroyed jewish shopesand burning down synagougs this is now as kristalnacht/the night of broken gla**

The Gettos...

  • polish jews were rounded up and put nto sealed areas called gettos  the able boddied were made to worrk but many died from sickne** or hunger
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The Persicution Of Minoritys Cont.

Mass Murder...

  • in 1914 Germany invaded the USSR and found themselves in control on over 3 million Russian Jews
  • they were rounded up and shoot the shootings were carrie dout by the Einsatzgrupen

The Death Camp...

  • In 1942 the nazi party disscused "The Final Solution" Himler took charge of the systematic killing of the jewish race in german occupancy
  • Death camps were built immedietly the old, young and sickwere killed or used for experiments (twins were most fften used)
  • 6million ews and 500,000 othe "Untomentions" were worked to death
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