Treaty of Versailles
The treaty was signed in 1919
The Treaty of Versailles was a treaty signed after the First World War by the Alies (France, Britain and the USA) and the losing country Germany.
-£6.6 billion in reparations.
-lost 10% of their land.
-The army was limited to 100,000 men.
-they had to accept full responsibility for the war. (war guilt clause.)
-their battleships were limited to six.
-Lost Alsace Lorraine.
-Lost the Polish Corridor.-Not allowed aircrafts/tanks.- Not allowed submarines.
The Spartacist revolt
The Spartaist revolt happened between the 5th and the 12th of January 1919.
It was lead by Rosa Luxemberg "Red Rosa" and Karl Liebknecht
The revolt was defeated by the Freikorps
the revolt was aimed to take over the government. They took over government buildings.
Weimar Government set up
The Weimar government was established in February 1919.
They signed the ToV and the politicians were called the November criminals.
The young plan was created in 1929.
It gave Germany 59 more years to repay the reparations.
it also reduced the ammount Germany had to pay by 3/4
The Locarno Pact was signed in 1925.
in this the western borders of Germany were agreed but not the eastern.
The Dawes plan happened in 1924.
The Dawes plan was when Germany borrowed money from the USA to repay the reparations.
reichstag-The German equivalent to the Houses of Parliament
article 48- the acting president of the Weimar Government could use this to become a dictator at any time they found suited.
rentenmark- currency introduced by Stressemann to combat hyperinflation.
hyperinflation- Money becomes worthless. eg. egg 1/4 mark 1918.
war guilt clause- Germany had to accept full responsibilty for the war.
league of nations 1926- Germany joined the League of Nations.
final solution 1942- In its entirety, the "Final Solution" consisted of gassings, shootings, random acts of terror, disease, and starvation that accounted for the deaths of about six million Jews -- two-thirds of European Jewry.
nuremberg laws- The laws saying jews can't marry non jews and ban jews from citizenship.
The Ruhr invasion
The Ruhr invasion happened in 1923.
French and Belgian troops invaded the Ruhr which was Germany's industrial land in order to get repayment for the reparations in goods as Germany had defaulted on the payments.
The German government reacted by telling the workers to go on passive resistance.
120 workers were killed during this.
The Nazi party
the party had:
-SA (lead by Rohm) (defeated in the Night of the Long Knives.) -SS
-SS (Schutzstaffel) (lead by Himmler)
-Goebels (incharge of propaganda)
-Goering (he was given control of the Luftwaffe – Germany’s growing air force.)
Wall Street Crash
The Wall Street Crash happened in 1929.
Hitler blamed (used as a scapegoat) the jews because a lot of bankers in the USA were jewish.
The Wall Street Crash is important because it meant Germany had to pay back the loans from the USA. This sent Germany plummiting into the depression.
Kellogg Briand Pact.
the kellogg briand pact was when the countries promised not to use violence to settle disputes.
Night of the Long Knives.
the night of the long knives happened in 1934.
Hitler eliminated anyone who he believed to be a threat to him. An example is he used the SS to eliminate Rohm and the SA.
the Munich Putsch started on the 8th of november 1923.
It was lead by Hitler.
After this Hitler was arrested for 5 years.
Night of the Broken Glass/Kristallnacht
on the 9-10th of November 1938
Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses and killed close to 100 Jews.
In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, some 30,000 Jewish men were arrested and sent to Nazi concentration camps.
After Kristallnacht, conditions for German Jews grew increasingly worse.
More key words/terms.
Berlin olympics- 1936 August.
Trade unions banned in Germany- 1933 May.
political parities banned in Germany- 1933 June.
The Reichstag fire happened on the 27th of February 1933.
Hitler used this event to scapegoat the communists and make the Nazis seem the best party for Germany.
He also used this event to use the enabling act which was when he declared a state of emergeny so could become very powerful and the only person higher than Hitler was Hindenberg but he died in 1934 so Hitler could then take full control and become a dictator.