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The Three Crises of 1923

Crises 1

  • Invasion of the Ruhr by the French - seizing of materials and industrial area.
  • The French were determined to make Germany pay as it was too poor to pay repairations.
  • German workers refused to work for the French.
  • Damaged Germany financially by losing products produced in the Ruhr.

Crises 2

  • German government printed more money due to their inability to pay for the passive resistance.
  • Hyperinflation - value goes down, prices go up.

Crises 3

  • Hitler attempted to take over Bavarian government as he believed the end of passive resistance was a betrayal.
  • The Beer Hall Putsch.
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The Putsches

The Kapp Putsch

  • 1920
  • Uprising by Freikorps who were angry at the government for accepting the Treaty of Versailles.
  • Freikorps try to seize power.
  • Led by Woldgang Kapp.
  • Weak government: army won't attack former comrades.
  • Left wing workers go on strike, Kapp Putsch collapses.
  • Those involved in the Kapp Putsch were not punished as Stresemann needed to maintain right wing support for his party to remain in power.

The Munich Putsch

  • 1923
  • The first attempt by Hitler and the Nazis to take power.
  • Hyperinflation was causing problems for many people.
  • Hitler saw an opportunity to sieze power for his party.
  • They captured the Bavarian PM and marched into Munich.
  • After the police refused to join the Nazis, the Putsch collapsed.
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The Impact of the Treaty of Versailles


  • Blame for the war - humiliating them.
  • Lost land.
  • Reduction in the size of their army.
  • Repairation costs.
  • Loss of Empire.
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Weighing Up Weimar

Weimar Republic

  • Hugely democratic.
  • Proportional representation.
  • Always a coalition government, therefore, always compromise.
  • Regular collapse.
  • Constant new election.

Threats 1919-1923

  • Spartacists
  • Kapp Putsch
  • Humiliation at acceptance of Treaty
  • Impact of Treaty
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  • Reduced impact of repairations through negociation.
  • Reformed banks by ending Hyperinflation.
  • Economic boom using American loans.
  • International acceptance as equal to other countries.
  • Joined League of Nations, restoring pride.


  • Rejected nationalists by rejecting idea of revenge.
  • Accepted Treaty terms.
  • No long term solution for money crisis.
  • Germany was dependent on American money.
  • Troubles for Germany after American money disaster 1929.
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