Georgraphy Edexcel GCSE Geography A Unit 3

Populaction Change


Key words

Population Density - The number of people that live in a particular area (Usually Per square KM)

Population Distribution - How spread out people are within an area.

HIC - High Income Country (Rich) Industrialized Country

LIC - Low Income Country (Poor) Developing Country

Crude Birth Rate -  The number of people born per 100 people per year

Crude Death Rate - The number of people that died per 100 People Per Year

Life expectancy - The age somone Can expect to live to at Birth

Fertility Rate - The average Number of Children Per Woman

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Key Words

Replacement Rate - The Number Of Children Needed to Maintain a Steady Population

Infant Mortality - The Number Of Chrildren Who Die Before Their First Birthday

Child Mortality - The Number Of Children Who Die Before Their Fifth Birthday

Natural Increase - The Differency Between The Birth Rate And The Death Rate

Literacy Rate - The Number of adults who can Read and Write a Simple Sentence, (Usually a Percentage) 

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What causes Birth Rates and Death Rates to Change?

Medical: In LICS disease is more common and wide spread

Medical: In HICS have vaccinations and inoculations as they have money, Technology and knowledge

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What causes Birth Rates and Death Rates to Change?

Health Care: Pregnancy,Child Birth

Death Rate Falling as sometimes mother and infant can both die

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What causes Birth Rates and Death Rates to Change?

Children are expensive:

In HICS people are choosing to have fewer Children

Death rate is affected by pouerty

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What causes Birth Rates and Deth Rates to Change?-

Children are expensive:

£186,032 = Raising a child from 0-21

£8,859 = Per Year

£738 = Per Month

£24.30 =  Per day

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What causes Birth Rates and Death Rates to Change?


LICS- Contraception

        Family Planning- How many children

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What causes Birth Rates and Death Rates to Change?

Some countries have tried to effect the birth rate

France/Singapore Rising Birth Rate

China On Child only Policy Decrease the Birth Rate

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Factors that affect Population Dencity


Physical Factors:

Good warter supply

Good climate

Raw miterials

Low Land

Human Factors :

Raw Materials

Avable Jobs

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Factors that affect Population Dencity


Physical Factors:

Very Hot

Steep Slopes

Human Factors :

Non Avable Jobs

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Notes about the Demographic Transition Model

Stage A- Amazon Tribes

Britan before 1780

Why are birth Rates High

High infant moracity rates so have lots of chrildren some survise

Lack of education

Have chrildren to work on the land/support in old age

Why are Death Rates High

Lack of medical Knolage

Lack of clean Warter  

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Notes about the Demographic Transition Model

Stage B- Bangladish

Britan 1780-1880

Why do death rates start to fall?

Sanitation- Clean Warter

                 -  Sewage system

Better living conditions

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Notes about the Demographic Transition Model

Stage C - Chile

Britan 1880 - 1940

Death Rate Keep Fallling

Why do Birth Rates Start to Fall?

More Chrildren survice so you dont need as many

Improved Knoledge of contraception/Family Planning and more Avable

Better Education  - Careers

                            -  Marry Later- Have Chrildren Later

Cost - £200,000

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Notes about the Demographic Transition Model

Stage D- Denmark

Britain - Post 1940 (Post - After)

Birth Rate and Death Rates Fluctuate

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Notes about the Demographic Transition Model

Now Stage E

Stage E - Germany


Raise Birth Rates


Population Will Fall by 16 Million

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Population Problems: Advantages

HICS - Ageing Population (E.G: Japan, UK, Singapore)


Jobs Opportunities

More Disposable income

Volunteering/ Charity Work

Role in the community

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Population Problems: Disadvantages

HICS - Ageing Population (E.G: Japan, UK, Singapore)


Dependency ratio (Too Few Working Age)


Heath Care - Nursing Homes

                  - Hospitals

Public Transport

Higher Taxes

Housing Shortages

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Population Problems: Solution

HICS - Ageing Population (E.G: Japan, UK, Singapore)



Pensions Cuts

Increase Pension Age

Increase Birth Rate

Increase Taxes

Encourage Private Pensions

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The Advsntages and Disadvantages of an Agening Pop

Introduction: Key Facts

  • Japan's Population is Ageing Quickly the Fastest in the World
  • Population expected to Fall from 127 Million (2005) to 90 Million (2055)
  • Economically Active will fall from 66% (2006) to 51% (2055)
  • Number of People over 65 will increase from 27% (2015) to 41% (2055)
  • Birth Rate at a record low of 1.29 Children per Woman
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The Advsntages and Disadvantages of an Agening Pop


The Greying Yen

Japan's Pensioners are spending,spending, They are buying Luxury goods,Traveling and eating expensive Foods.

Children are doing less caring and parents have fewer inhibitions about spending money.

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Advsntages and Disadvantages of an Agening Populat



The biggest economic growth and employment

Business face difficulties finding new recruits

Labour forces is the 15-24 age bracket more than 8 million in 1990 will have shrunk to 5.3 million by 2015

Taxi drivers and small shops keepers are more likely to be grey- hired pensioners

Increase the number of women working  Between 1990 and 2005 there will only be 2 women workers.

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Advsntages and Disadvantages of an Agening Populat


The Age of Retirement rising from 60 to 65 by 2030

Health Care

93% of Japanese People who are over the age of 60 live at home, either on their own,with a spouse or with other family Members

Paying for caring for the Elderly accounts for half of Japans Health Budget

Huge financial deficit on the Health Budget

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What has Singapore done to increase its Birth Rate

The Government is offering Cash Gifts  this means that the parents will get $3,000 For the First and Second Child. The Parents will get $600 For the Third and Fourth Child

The Second to Fourth child can have a savings account which is called a "Children Development Account (CDA) This is ware any money saved is matched by the Government.

The Singapour Goverment are saying "Singapore Three Or More"

If the Parents have more Children they can have a bigger house if they have no children they get no more then a 3 bed Flat

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LICS Proplems,Advantages and Solutions

LIC'S Population:  Explosion

                             Rapid Population Growth

                             Youthful Population




Disease: Lack of Medical Care

               Lack Of Hospitals

                Lack Of Hygine

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LICS Proplems,Advantages and Solutions

LIC'S Population: Explosion

                            Rapid Population Growth

                            Youthful Population


Lack Of Food

Lack of Jobs

Lack of Public Services

Lack of Housing

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LICS Proplems,Advantages and Solutions

LIC'S Population: Explosion

                            Rapid Population Growth

                            Youthful Population



The Can Support The Eldly

Solutions: Solve Problems - Money

                Solve Causes - High Birth Rate's

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China's One Child Policy Decresing Birth Rates

In 1979 China Had 1/4 of The World Population

2/3 Of The Population are under 30

Government Introduce Strict Polices Because of Concerns over the Food Supply/Growth ETC


"One Child Certificate

Cash Bonuses

Longer Maternity Leave

Free Education

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China's One Child Policy Decresing Birth Rates


Lose all Benefits

Heavy Fines

Sacked From Job

"Granny Police" (Eyes and Ears of the Government)

Encouraged to Postpone Marriage

Made to "wait Their Turn"

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China's One Child Policy Decresing Birth Rates

Recent Changes

In Rural Areas 70% of china's Population a 2nd Child is usually aloud (After 5 Years) BUT only if the 1ST was a GIRL

3rd Child May be aloud For Ethnic Mminorities

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Consequences of a Youthful Population

There are both Positive and Negative affects of a Youthful Population

Negative Affects:

In LIC's more then 40% of the Population in Africa is under Fifteen

Disease among Children is Widespread For example Measles and diarrhea.

Positive Affects:

Children can look after their Parents so Less money needs to be spent on care of the elderly.

With a large active Workforce there is Economic Growth

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Moving World: Migration

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another

Origin (Start From) Push Factors (Push you away) Pull Factors (Pull you) to Destination (The place you move to)

Push and pull factors can be split: 


Moving Theory sugested by O.S Lee

If there are more positives than negatives about destination (The place you are moving to) Then you will MOVE 

Developed by Stouffer - Intervening opportunities  

A place closer that offers the same as the destination 

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Types Of Migration


Movement between two countries 




Lots of people 


Moving in the same countries 


Deported,Natural and distaste 

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Types Of Migration


On your own,Family Holiday 



Temporary (Short Term) 

Short Term= Less than a year, circulatory Movement 

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Push and Pull: Human Factors

Push Factors

  • Noise
  • Bad Traffic
  • Jobs

Pull Factors 

  • Quite
  • Education 
  • More Jobs 
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Push and Pull : Physical

Push Factors

  • Flood 
  • Bad Soil/Farmland
  • Weather 

Pull Factors 

  • Good Soil/ Farmland
  • Weather 
  • Landmarks 
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Key Words: Moving World Topic

Emigration: Movement out

Immigrant: The person who moves in 

Migrant: People who have moved out 

Immigration: Movement Of people into a country

Emigrant: The person who moves out 

Host Country: Where people move to 

Country of origin: Where you start 

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Poland Economic

Costs (Disadvantages)

2005: 10% of jobs in construction not filled. By 2007 the figure rose to 35% due to migration

Benfits (Advantages) 

In 2007 monthly salaries in Poland increased by 9% due to a shortage of workers

Increased in salaries has men's that people are getting a higher standard of living.   

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Poland Social

Costs (Disadvantages) 

Many Polish villages suffer from rural depopulation due to migration

Birth Rate has decreed due to the average age of migrants being in the reproductive age group 

Benefits (Advantages) 

Legislation is being drafted in to try and encourage Pols to return home by offering good salaries.

The Polish government lunched incentive "Stay With Us" This is to  persuade people to stay in Poland with a payment of £5,000   

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England Economic

Costs (Disadvantages) 

Cambridge police deal with 100 different languages, This has cos £800,000 for translators 

Benefits (Advantages) 

Impact on the welfare state as 27,00 Child benefit Application

Migrant workers add considerable amount to consumer spending in the UK. The average migrant workers earns £20,000 per year

Positive impact on the labour migrant workers are prepared to do jobs that British people don't want to do.

Migrant have made the UK workforce younger aged the pension burden More Polish shops in Britain      

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England Social

Benefits (Advantages)

Impact on Catholic Churches 

More Polish children in British school- Teaching Polish History

Scotland proclaimed that immigrants from Eastern Europe have triggered a baby boom (3 months in 2007 650 where born )   

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Why are more people able to move now?

Development of E-Technology 

1998- 9% of UK households had access to the internet 

2005- 53% of UK households had access to the Internet

Globally  approximately 80% of the planet have some form on Internet Acess.

Awareness of Countries and cultures

Easier to search for work and accommodation

Easier to keep in contact

Easier to book flights

Purchases can still be made  

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Why are more people able to move now?

Development in Transport 

Travel is now much faster EG: - Australia in 1950s Boat, 3 Weeks

- Australia Now Plane, 24 Hours 

Travel is cheaper - budget airlines EG: Easyjet, Ryanair

    - Europen Weekends 

    -  International Commuting 

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Why are more people able to move now?

Relaxation of National Boundaries 

When the EU was first established people where entitled to free access between the countries. 

Since 2004 (When 10 more countries joined) The original countries (Including the UK) started to tighten their borders

In 2007 Romania and Bulgarie Joined the EU

EU does not include every Country in Europe  

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Why are more people able to move now?

The UK Position

Only allows unskilled Workers from EU countries.

Skilled Migrants have to for fill a points quota in order to be let in  

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Short Term Migration Flow

Medical Migration:

In 2007 50,000 People left the UK to have  medical and cosmetic treatments abroad 

EG: A crown: Uk £555

      Hungary £199

       £451 Saving 

 Push Factors:

Unhappy with the NHS because waiting lists are lengthening and demand in not being met

Poorly maintained Hospitals

British hospitals are perceived to be dirty and patients feel that they are not cared for.

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Short Term Migration Flow

Push Factors: 

Private Health care is expensive in the UK 

Patients feel that they are treated like a production line 

Hospitals are closing down therefore patients will have longer distance to travel 

Pull Factors  to the destination:

The treatment is cheaper abrod

Better patient care with more time spent by doctors and nurses with the patients

Can be done as part of a package holiday

Modern medical facilities with start of the art equipment which are clean and well stocked

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Short Term Migration Flow

Other push and pull factors:

The induction of budget airlines with direct flights to Budapest and other dental destinations.

The development of the Internet

A greater awareness of what is available due to asvertisements

Ease of Travel due to improved networks and relaxation of national boundaries

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Sport Migration

Example Football: 

Players move to different clubs for more money, Family.

EG Roman Paulyuchenko Did not move in 207 because he could not speck fluent English  

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Thaniya Christie


This is really helpful thanks *** 



This is **** mate



you spelt Advantages wrong on the 22nd page, but really helpful :)

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