Places water can be stored:
On the surface as snow or ice
In the plants and trees
In the lake
In the marsh
In the grass, on the surface
In the soil
In the water table
In the sea in the clouds
Watershed – Edge of drainage basin, joins high points in basin
Source – point at which a river begins
Mouth – point at which a river meets the sea, or inland lake
Tributary – Stream or small river that leads to a bigger one
Confluence – the point at which 2 streams meet
River basin – area drained by a single river system (drainage basin)
Interfluves – ridge of higher ground that lies between 2 rivers
The force of water on the bed and banks. Water force removes material from bed and banks. Particulay strong during floods.
The sediment rubs against the bed and banks at times of high flow
Rock minerals eg. Calcium carbonate slowley disolve in river water, which is sometime acidic.
Sediment rub against each other, breaking themselves up and reducing each other to sediment.
Large boulders roll along the river bed
Small pebbles are bounced along the river bed as the flow changes
Finer sand and silt particles are carried along in the flow giving the water a brown appearance
Minerals eg. limestone and chalk are dissolved into the water and carried by the flow, they can’t be seen
Falling water and rock
particles wear away soft rock
The hard rock is undercut as
Hard rock collapses and if moved
by the flow. The waterfall moves backwards
Erosion continues and the waterfall continues to move upstream
leaving a gorge of recession
Ox - bow lake: Semi circular lake formed by a meander being sealed off from the main course of a river.
Meander Scar: Dried up ox – bow lake.
flood- test case
Reasons: Two very large rivers; Ganges and Brahmaputra meet
Very low lying land
Costal storm surges
Silting up of riverbeds, decreased capacity
Urban growth increased surface run off