Geography unit 4: Tourism - case studies


Trump Golf Course



  • Creates jobs - increased income = improved economy (more spending and tax)
  • Only 200 jobs created of the 6000 promised (Independent, 2013)
  • Money made can be spent conserving the environment and in management strategies  


  • Construction requires money, resources and energy
  • Environmental consequences - cut off and damage to unique sand dunes (environmentally sensitive areas) - (Independent, 2013)
  • Course affects SSSI

Need to manage the attraction to prevent the carrying capacity being exceeded, which would damage the resilience of the area

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ECOTOURISM - attempts tot minimise environmental impacts and promote cultural and ecological understanding (Dunn et al, 2009)


  • Revenue of $250,000 made in 3 years 
  • 55 jobs created


  • Potential for conflict between visitors and locals - different priorities/needs 
  • Needs to be carefully managed to maintain the local culture and keep all different groups happy - Doxey's irritation model

Doxey's irritation model - locals may get increasingly irritated by the potential expansion of tourism (numbers of visitors and developments) in the area ultimately leading to a loss of their culture of degrades their environmental quality

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Peak District and Lake District National Park

                     LEISURE                  14.8 million people visit the Lake District every year


  • Creates jobs - 2000 jobs created in the Peak District (hotel work, catering, shops)
  • Increased income - Peak District - £225 milion made directly to local economy (
  • Income used for management and maintaining resilience of area


  • Trampling of footpaths (walkers and bikers) - damage ecosystems - enhanced by number of visitors - more than 16 million people live within 1 hour of the Peak District (
  • Fires caused by visitors with cigarettes and BBQs - damage biodiversity (BBC News - 2011)
  • Increased number of cars in area causing pollution and overcrowding - 85% of visitors go by car
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Machu Picchu



  • Economically - Increased income 
  • Socially - improved standards of education
  • Health of population increased - access to medical treatment and improved diet
  • Improved infrastructure - new railway benefited locals and tourists 


  • Conflict between different groups (govts, conservationists, locals)
  • Locals and tourists especially as their needs differ (Doxey's irritation model)
  • Threat of crowding and congestion (pollution) increased due to fragility of ecosystems 
  • Management strategies have helped - Inca Trail protected, number of people allowed on trail limited to 500 a day, increased fee to hike to $50, compulsory to trek with registered guides (Geofile 561 - Recreation Tourism and the Carrying Capacity)
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Galapagos Islands

         TOURISM                         Number of tourists visiting the area increased significantly from                                                       40,000  in 1990 to 145,000 in 2006 

Negative impacts:

  • Fragile ecosystem - home to endangered endemic species 
  • Easily destroyed by boat anchors, demand for public services, increasing infrastructure and invasive species (Goats - BBC documentary - Lonesome George

Management Strategies

  • Park rules - not touching, handling or feeding animals, no litter is left, stay in permitted areas and with a licenced guide
  • Galapagos Conservation Trust (GCP) - non-profit organisation dedicated to raising funds for the protection and conservation of the Galapagos 
  • Sustainable and ethical tourism measures 
  • ( 
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                                     TOURISM                                        Fragile environment      

Exploration of humans in the area has had significant impacts


  • Vulnerablre and endemic species have been hunted to the verge of extinction 
  • Soil contamination, sewage spillage into the sea and people leaving rubbish (
  • Scientists and tourists may possess bacteria and organisms that could be devastating to the native species that lack immunity (Telegraph and

Management strategies: Protection treaty - state rules governing human activities in area

Butler model - currently at discovery stage - if it continues to develop and follow the model, pristine environment lost

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  • Different sources 
  • Books - Edexcel A2 Geography
  • Websites, particularly news sites e.g. BBC news and Independent 
  • Can be bias due to political stance e.g. Telegraph more Conservative/right wing but others not biased e.g. Independent and views can be balanced using Newspapers with differing politcal stances 
  • TV Programmes - documentaries - BBC on Galapagos and Panorama

Included these sources as they are reliable e.g. from .gov and .org websites or work that has been peer reviewed or done by experts , unbiased (when possible) and topical information when possible

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