Exponential growth means the bigger the population, the faster it grows. Many people feel that the world will soon be overpopulated where we won't have enough resources for everyone.
Birth rate is the number of babies born alive for every 1000 people in one year. Death rate is the number of people who die for every 1000 people in one year. Natural increase is the number of people gained or lost for every 1000 people in one year. Birth rate - death rate.
Birth rates and death rates are different in every country and can be affected by a number of things including levels of development of a country, for example living conditions, contraception, healthcare and medicines avaliable.
High levels of population increase are occuring in developing countries due to womens early marriage, high fertility rates and low literacy rates. Population balance and population decline occur in developed countries as the opposite.
Anti natalist policies - China's 'one child policy' :
The government aims to limit the population and reduce fertility rate by forcing couples to only have one child or they will be punished by law.
Pro natalist policies - Singapore's 'have three or more' :
The government aim to increase population by:
- offering money for having each child
- paying for education and childcare
- having tax relief on your third child
- increasing maternity leave for both the mother and the father
Anti Immigration policy - UK:
The government introduced a point system so only migrants that are English-speaking and well qualified xan gain a visa which will increase the skilllevel of migrant workers and reduce the number of migrants entering the UK.
Pro Immigration policy - Russia:
The government aim to stabilise the population and ensure there are enough workers by using a cash insentive to encourage russians who left the counrty to come back and by encouraging migrants to come and work in Russia.
Advantages of immigration: boost economy, work in low skilled unwanted jobs
Disadvantages of immigration: wages are forced down, health and welfare systems are strained and they don't intergrate into American society and culture.