GEOGRAPHY UNIT1

UNIT 1 & UNIT 2 REVISION NOTES 

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SUMMER HEAT WAVE JULY 2013- ANTICYCLONES

CAUSES OF ANTICYCLONES

- Anti-cyclones have sinking air 

- Therefore the air is warmed by the surface of the air 

-Clockwise Direction 

- Hot dry weather in the summer

- Winds are calm , sky remains clear

- Little rain 

- In winter they bring sunny,dry but cold icy weather , they bring problems such as icy roads,illneses

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SUMMER HEAT WAVE JULY 2013- ANTICYCLONES

EFFECTS OF ANTICYLONES

- Trains were closed and people didnt have public transport becuase it was to dangerous 

- Demand for water increases

- British tourism fled to the seaside , some hotels, cafes claimed record profits, gives confidence to return next year, leads to increase bookings in 2014 more jobs created 

- People became ill , as they get sunburnt, sunstroke, the percentage of this has increased

- Hospitals are busier , increases case in food posining , 60 cases in jersey alone 

- Crime cases which involves alcohol increases , this puts more demand on police 

- More fires in the counry side ruining habitats this puts more pressure on the firebrigade.

- 2 soldiers died from the heat in triaing in wales

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SUMMER HEAT WAVE JULY 2013- ANTICYCLONES

RESPONSES- 

- Goverment issued out warnings for people to drink more water to reduce dehydration , stay in cool rooms and to regular check up on the elderly 

- In some areas local authorities issued a 'hose-pipe ban' to save water

- The emergency service had to work extra hours because of extra work load 

- Supermarkets ha to stock items for bbq's, ice pops and mineral water in much more quantities 

- Schoold wanred children not to swim in canals rivers etc becuase of the dangers of drowning 


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HURRICANE KATRINA - TROPICAL STORM

WHAT CAUSES A TROPICAL STORM TO FORM 

- They form over the warm oceans, close to the equater

- Need warm sea temperatures at about 27 degrees or above 

- At this temperature water evaporates rapidly and condensation creates enormous amount of ebergy which powers the storm 

- They loose energy when they hit land 

- The clouds which surround the centre of the eye are called the eye wall, which brings heavy rain and strong winds 

- This is usually the most dangerous feature of the storm 

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HURRICANE KATRINA - TROPICAL STORM

EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA 

PRIMARY-  

- storm surge occured at the centre of the storm 

- where theres low pressure which caused sea level to rise , the tidal wave caused flooding 

- 18,000 people killed , 2/3 of whom were drowned by the surge 

- 300,000 homes were destroyed, 3 million were without electricitty, bridges collapsed 

- Overall damage of tropical storm was $300 billion 

SECONDARY-

- Shops were looted 

- Middle class whites blamed the afro carribean for the lotting and crime 

- Middle class whites were balmed for abondoning the poor , 230,000 jobs were lost from damaged businesses 


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HURRICANE KATRINA - TROPICAL STORM

RESPONSES TO HURRICANE KATRINA

SHORT TERM

- 25,000 were given shelter at superdome sport centre

- Emergency service resuced over 50,000 people from homes 

- Emergency supplies of food and water and medicines were distributed 

- National Gurd call in to maintain law and order

- LONG TERM 

- $34 billion set aside to re build schools , roads, etc

- US government spent $800 million on rebulding and increasing height of flood defences

- Money spent on improving the monitor of hurricanes 

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CYCLONE NARGIS

EFFECTS ON ENVIROMENT

- Winds = 215 km/hr 

- Storm surge caused by low air pressure 

- Sea levels rose by 3.6m 

- Hit the coastline so flooded flat land - waves were 7m 

LOCATION

- Burma / APRIL /MAY

WHAT IS A CYCLONE

- Low pressure which forms in tropical areas where sea temp is 26 degrees or more

- An example of tropical storm - CYLONES - INDIAN OCEAN         - TYPHOON- ASIA+JAPAN

                                            - HURRICANES- USA + CARRIBEAN 


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CYCLONE NARGIS

EFFECTS ON PEOPLE-

- 130 000 people killed . health issues, electricity flooded

- 800,000 homes destroyed 

- Farming all flooded 

- Food shortages

- 260 000 moved to refugee camps 

GROUPS  WHO WERE AFFECTED 

- Home owners, family who lost relatives, Farmers

PATH OF CYLONE NARGIS 

- April 2005 tropical depression      - Moved west towards india on 28th April 

- 29th it turned East                      - 2nd May struck Burma 

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CYCLONE NARGIS

 HOW DO THEY FORM 

- They form when the sea is at 26 degrees or more 

- Warm air rises 

- Cool are comdenses releasing heat energy 

- Storm clouds form to buld heavy rain 

- Air rushes in to replace rising air

- Cooler air sinks to form the eye of the storm 

- Looses strength  when it hits land as heat and energy is removed 


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AMOZONIAN RAINFOREST - BRAZIL - THREATEND ECO SYST

CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION 

- LOGGING- Trees used for furniture etc.

- CATTLE FARMING- Huge areas have been deforested to create land for animals to graze on 

- MINING - Rainforest have been removed to create mines for gold, iron 

-PLANTATIONS- Deforestion and reeplanting a single crop eg bananas,sugar,coffe

- NEW ROADS- Roads built to open up new areas to development 


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AMOZONIAN RAINFOREST - BRAZIL - THREATEND ECO SYST

EFFECT OF DEFORESTATION

- CLIMATE CHANGE- Burning forests release CO2 

- BIO DIVERSITY- Large number of animals and plants died some of which have become extinxt and could have been used in medicines

- SOIL EROSION-  Deforestation is where no canopy to protect the soil so when it rains the nutrients get washed away 

- SOIL FERTILITY- Breaking the nutrient cycle means soil recieves less nutrients 

- Some of the trees are endangered 


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AMOZONIAN RAINFOREST - BRAZIL - THREATEND ECO SYST

RESPONSE 

-Selective Logging- Trees only cut down when mature

- Afforestation - Planting new trees to replace trees removed 

- Tree Measuring- Only cutting trees which reach a sertain height

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DESERTIFICATION - THE SAHEL REGION - AFRICA

CAUSES OF DESERTIFICATION 

- Turning useful land into desert 

- less reliable rainfalls since 1970 rainfall has been below average 

- Drought has destroyed vegetation, crops have failed animals/plants died of thirst 

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE- Higher temperature/less rainfall more evaporation 

OVERGRAZING- Sheeps/goats/cows are eating vegatation 

POPULATION - Population grows rapidly in the sahel

- Many refugees are aso arriving/escaping from wars 

- More food is needed so more land is farmed 

- Less trees there are to anchor the more soil is exposed to erosion by rain and wind 


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DESERTIFICATION - THE SAHEL REGION - AFRICA

EFFECTS OF DESERTIFICATION- SHORT TERM

- Shortage of food and water lead to illness mainly old/young 

- A massive ned for food aid from charities in MEDC'S 

- People migrated from areas where there was no aid in refugee camps

EFFECTS OF DESERTIFICATION- LONG TERM

-  Over 1 million remain malnourished and depend on food aid 

- Most families have lost cattle on which they rely on 

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DESERTIFICATION - THE SAHEL REGION - AFRICA

BEST SOLUTIONS ARE SUSTAINABLE(CHEAP,LOW TECH)

- AFFORESTATION- Planting trees to act as a barrier from the wind and to act like an anchor 

- COLLECTING- Collecting rainwater from the roofs to help the crops grow 

-SLOPES- Creating flat slopes so soil doesnt blow away 

- STONES OR BUNDS - stones put into gaps to make it have the same height 

ADVANTAGES

- They allow water to soak into the soil 

- They trap water and stop it from getting wasted

- Top soil is trapped and not lost to erosion 

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TOO LITTLE WATER DROUGHT- SAHEL ,AFRICA

SOLUTIONS

- Collect rainwater

- Control number of animals allowed to graze in an area

- Plant trees to protect the soil from erosion 

- Keeps moisture in the soil

- Build wells

- Develop drought resistant crops

- EXPENSIVE- Use silver iodine to make raindrops 

-CHEAP- Magic stones/bunds to catch water 

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TOO LITTLE WATER DROUGHT- SAHEL ,AFRICA

EFFECTS 

- Herds lost in drought

- Famine and death 

DEFINITION OF DROUGHT

- Unusual weather pattern that causes less rain than unexpected 

    - Africa havent seen rain in 10years 

    - 500 million people affected by desertification 

LOCATION

- Margin of Sahara Desert 

3,000 west - east

700kms North - South 

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TOO LITTLE WATER DROUGHT- SAHEL ,AFRICA

CAUSES OF DROUGHT -

Where useful farming land has been made into a desert 

CLIMATE FACTORS

- Below average rainfall since 1968

- Less moisture for plants

- High temperature causes high rate of evaporation and even more moisture lost 

- Rainfall unpredictable ,Heavy showers can cause soil erosion 

HUMAN FACTORS

- Death rate fallen over last 30 years, more people need food so keep animals

- More people need food so keep more animals 

- More population so more crops needed , more animals lead to more overgrazing

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RIVER PROCESSES- THE RIVER SEVERN

COURSE OF A RIVER

- Journey of a river is from the source to the mouth and the river can be divided into 3 parts

- Upper course - Middle Course - Lower Course 

EROSION

- Wearing away rock and soil across the river bed and banks . Erosion also involves the breaking down of rock particles being carried downstream byt the river . There are 4 main tyoes of river erosion 

- HYDRAULIC ACTION-River wear away teh river bank from underneath

- ATTRITION- Rocks being carried by the river underneath smash together and break into smaller particles 

- ABRASION- Rocks being carried across by the river wear down the river bed and banks

- SOLUTION- Smaller particles are dissolved into the river

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RIVER PROCESSES- THE RIVER SEVERN

TRANSPORTATION

River picks up and carrys materials as they flow downstream it can transport it in 4 different ways

- SOLUTION- Minerals are dissolved in the water

- SUSPENSION- Fine light material is carried along in the water

- SALTATION- Small pebbles and stones are bounced across the river bed 

DEPOSITION

- When a river looses energy, it will drop or deposit some of the material that it is carrying 

- Deposition may take place when a river enters an area of shallow wter or when the voulme of water decreases- for example after a flood

- Deposition is common towards the end of a rivers journey , at the mouth 

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RIVER PROCESSES- THE RIVER SEVERN

COURSE OF A RIVER-

Journey of a river is from the source to mouth. It can be divided into 3 parts 

- Upper course - Middle course - Lower course

EROISION 

- Wearing away rock and soil along the river bed and banks. Erosion also involves the breaking down of rock particles being carried downstream by the river . 4 main forms of river erosion

- HYDRAULIC ACTION- River wears away th river bank from underneath 

- ATTRITION- Rocks being carried by the river then smash together and break into smaller particles 

- ABRASION- Rocks carried along by the river wear down the river bed and banks

- SOLUTION- Smaller particles are dissolved into the river 

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RIVER PROCESSES- THE RIVER SEVERN

TRANSPORTATION

- Rivers pick up and carry material as they flow downstream it can transport it in 4 different ways

SOLUTION- Minerals are dissolved in the water

SUSPENSION- Fine light material is carried along in the water

SALTATION-  Small pebbles and stones are bounced along the river bed 

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RIVER PROCESSES- THE RIVER SEVERN

FORMATION OF A 'V' SHAPED VALLEY 

- The valley is narrow with a narrow , shallow river channel 

- Valleys have steep sides

- Channel has a steep gradient with features such as pot holes, rapids and waterfalls

- Water is mainly slow flowing as most of the rivers energy is used to overcome the friction of the river bed and obstructions 

- The load is mainly large angular and rough

WATERFALLS 

Waterfalls form where hard rock overlies soft rock. 

Attrition and abrasion and hydraulic action erodes the base of the waterfall.

Eventually the hard rock will collapse into the plunge pool under its own weight. The waterfall retreats leaving a steep sided gorge infront of it  MEANDERS-

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RIVER SEVERN, CENTRAL ENGLAND SUMMER 2007-FLOODING

CAUSES

- Heavy rainfall through June caused flooding

- This meant that the ground was already filled with water and couldnt allow any more to go in

- Heavy rain during 19th July and 20th caused widespread flooding all across central England

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RIVER SEVERN, CENTRAL ENGLAND SUMMER 2007-FLOODING

EFFECTS-SHORT TERM

- 1 Person drowned in June floods, 2 dies pumping water from a rugby club

- Thousands of motorist were stranded on M5 motorway 

- Destroyed harvest crops 

- Towns such as Tewkesbury, which became an island, isolated from elsewhere by water, sewage system couldnt control themselves, with widespread flooding of homes and businesses with contaminated , dirty water

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RIVER SEVERN, CENTRAL ENGLAND SUMMER 2007-FLOODING

Long Term 

- People had to live for weeks in temporary accomodation 

- Businesses lost money as they remained closed why they repaired damage 

- Farmers suffered hardship

- Children had to be taught without facilities

- People had to live without clean running water and electricity for a week 

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RIVER SEVERN, CENTRAL ENGLAND SUMMER 2007-FLOODING

RESPONSE- SHORT TERM 

- Emergency servies rescued people from upper floors of homes,cars.

- Sandbags where put down to stop water getting into buildings, people moved to higher ground

RESPONSE- LONG TERM

- Fire fighters cleaned up properties

- Roads and bridges strengthened 

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FEATIRES OF COASTAL EROSION IN DORSET AND NORTH NO

- When a wave breaks, water is washed up on the beach = SWASH 

- When the water runs back dows the beach = backwash

Types of Coastal erosional processes

HYDRAULIC PRESSURE- Sheer forces of the waves, especially when they trap and compress air in cracks and holes in a cliff

CORRASION- Results from large waves hurling beach material against the cliff

ATTRITION- Is when waves cause rocks and pebbles on the beach to bump into eachother and break down in size 

SOLUTION- Is when certain types of cliff are slowly dissolved by acids in the sea water

BAY AND HEADLANDS

- If the rock was all the same hardness then the coastline would all erode at the same .

- Its only when there is a difference in hardness that produces bays and headlands

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WAVE CUT PLATFORM

FORMATION OF CAVES.ARCHES,STACKS AND STUMPS 

1, Waves attack a weakness in the headland

2. A cave is formed

3. Eventually the cave erodes through the headland to form an arch

4. The roof of the arch collapses leaving a column of rock called a stack 

5. The stack collapses leaving a stump

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FEATURES OF COASTAL EROSION IN DORSET AND NORTH NO

CONSTRUCTIVE WAVES ARE

- Created in calm weather and are less powerful thatn destructive waves

- They break on the shore and deposit material , building up beaches

- Have a swash that is stronger than the backwash 

LONGSHORE DRIFT 

Longshore drift  describes the process by which material is moved or transported along a beach 

- Usually in one direction , prevailing wind swash carries material up the beach following the angle of the waves Backwash takes material straight down the bech under gravity 

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BLAKENEY SPIT- A LANDFORM PRODUCED BY COASTAL DEPO

HOW WAS IT FORMED

- Beach material carried west by longshore drift 

- Sediment deposited during calm periods 

- End of spit curves comes back in the same same direction 

- Sand dunes develop when wind picks up sand from the spit and blow inland 

- Salt marshes develop in the sheltered area behind the spit

LOCATION

- On the North Norfolk coast

- Formed where the the River Glaven meets the North sea

Is a shingle spit 15.5 km long 200 metres wide

- Can only be reached by walking 5km from Cley or by boat.

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BLAKENEY SPIT- A LANDFORM PRODUCED BY COASTAL DEPO

EFFECTD OF GROUPS OF PEOPLE ON BLAKENEY 

- Walkers erode paths and pick rare flowers and trample others

- Dogfs chase bird and eat their eggs

- Horse riders disturb bird and crush eggs

- Beach users damage dunes with litter and BBQs

- Bird watchers cause damage to habitats

- 4 wheel drivers cause severe erosion to saltmarsh and dunes

IMPORTANCE OF BLAKENEY SPIT 

- Nation nature reserve and an site of speical scientific interest 

- Has 3 main habitats of shingle ridge, sand dunes and salt marsh 

- Important seal and bird colony 

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BLAKENEY SPIT- A LANDFORM PRODUCED BY COASTAL DEPO

HOW IT CAN BE MANAGED TO MAKE SUSTAINABLE 

- Notices warn people of the damage they can do 

- Limit numers of visitors especially during the breeding season 

- Wardens keep an eye on the area 

- Fence off some areas to provide protection for birds 

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BLAKENEY SPIT- A LANDFORM PRODUCED BY COASTAL DEPO

HOW IT CAN BE MANAGED TO MAKE SUSTAINABLE 

- Notices warn people of the damage they can do 

- Limit numers of visitors especially during the breeding season 

- Wardens keep an eye on the area 

- Fence off some areas to provide protection for birds 

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NORTH NORFOLK COASTLINE- MANAGING A COASTAL ENVIRO

An eroding coastline in South East England , north of Norwich 

CAUSES 

- Cliffs are eroded mainly by destructive waves during sotrms which have a storng backwash, which carries material out to see 

- The base of a cliff is undercut by erosion ( HYDRAULIC EROSION, SOLUTION, ATTRITION, ABRASION) to form a wave cut notch , which in time will cause the cliff to collapse 

EFFECTS 

- Coastlines of soft rock are retreating by upto 4m per year

- Houses, hotels, roads, gardens and farmlkand are being lost to sea 

- The value of property falls the closer it gets to an eroding coast because it may not be there in the future

- Sea level rises are making the effects worse 

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NORTH NORFOLK COASTLINE- MANAGING A COASTAL ENVIRO

HARD ENGINEERING

- Highest value such as the sea front at cromer are protected by expensive sea walls

- Other high value land is protected by rock armour (loads of rocks ) or gabions (cages full of rocks ) . All of these techniques absorb the energy of waves 

- Gryones are designed to trap sand and to stop the loss of beaches to longshore drift

- They are usually wooden walls that run at 90 degrees out to sea from the beach 

- A healthy beach asorbs the energy of the sea and protects the cliffs beyond 

SOFT ENGINEERING

- Beach nourishment- where sand from the sea floor is collected by boat and sprayed to replenish a beach which has lost its sand to longshore drift for geese and wildfowl

- Low value of farmland is allowed to get flooded by the sea and then they soon become mud flats which act as a natural buffer against erosion and a new habitat, some land has such low value just gets eroded away. some places have building restriction to built near the coast

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