Geography - Tourism

A set of cards to help revise Tourism.

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: FiFi
  • Created on: 22-04-11 12:06

What is Tourism?

Tourism is visiting other countries on a holiday, or business trip, which brings income to that particular place.

Tourism is travel for recreation, leisure or business. Tourists travel away for more than 24 hours but less than a year.

Leisure

  • Beach holiday, Lanzarote
  • Shopping to London

Recreation

  • Charity Work, Chile
  • Skiing in the Alps

Business

  • Conference in Manchester
  • Visiting other companies in New Zealand.
1 of 18

How has Tourism has changed?

  • Very rare in 1950.
  • Steady increase after 1970.
  • Increased by 781 million over 55 years.
  • Tourism rapidly increased after 1985.
  • Between 1950 - 1960 tourism rose by 84 million.
  • Between 2000 - 2005 tourism rose by 119 million, up 35 million.

(http://salonconsulting.com/Blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/graph_WTO.jpg) 

2 of 18

Positives and Negatives of Tourism

Positives

  • Brings income to the country (10% of worlds GDP)
  • Creates jobs (100 million jobs worldwide)
  • Enriches culture and ennvironment

Negatives

  • Congestion/overcrowding
  • Badly bulit buildings = people put in danger
  • Litter and water pollution
  • Increasese rift between poor and rich
  • Air and noise pollution
3 of 18

Differences between rich and poor countries

Rich Countries

  • Tourism only a small part of the economy
  • 5% of income in UK comes from tourism
  • Domestic tourists just as importsnt as overseas ones
  • Creates jobs
  • Provides income

Poor Countries

  • Tourism is essential to the economy
  • Visitors taxed to help pay for the services they use
  • In Barbados, 80% of income is from tourism
  • Jobs are informal and based around the service industry
  • Tourists spend money in £, $ or Euros which is essential to foreign countries
  • Overseas tourists are more important than domestic ones.
  • Create jobs
  • Provides income
4 of 18

Importance of tourism in the UK

  • Tourists spend a total of £11.9 billion
  • In 2002,  24 million visitors came to the UK
  • In 2007, over 32.8 million visitors came and spent £16 billion
  • Overseas visitors arrive in Britain every second of the day, ebery day of the year
  • Tourists pay £12.7 billion in tax, enough to pay 30,000 nurses
  • Tourism creates 2.1 million jobs - 7% of all employment
  • Tourism contributes £85 billion to the economy - 2.7% of the GDP
5 of 18

What effects tourism?

Foot and Mouth

  • National parks closed
  • certain areas restricted. E.g. countryside, farms

September 11th

  • People scared of their plane bieng bombed

Iraq War

  • Oil more expensive - supply not secure
  • Prices go up

SARS Outbreak

  • Restricted travel from certain areas
6 of 18

What effects tourism?

7/7 Bombings

  • Damage to transport
  • People are scared of death/injury
  • Terrosim - happening again

Credit Crunch

  • Not enough disposable earnings to afford a holiday
7 of 18

Butler's Model

Exploration Stage

  • A small number of tourists explore a new location
  • For personal adventure or new cultures
  • Economic, Social and environmental imapcts are almost nil

Involvement

  • Acceptance by the locals is increased, so the destination becomes popular.
  • Travel and Accomodation is improved.

Development

  • Local people become more involved in attracting people to the area.
  • In LEDC's, control passes to a MEDC to manage it.
  • Package Holidays begin
8 of 18

Butler's Model

Consolidation

  • Tourism has become an important economic and social activity.
  • This changes the traditional lifestyles. (farm land is given to resorts)
  • Increased wealth, jobs etc. starts to happen.
  • Numbers of tourists is still high but starts to slow down

Stagnation

  • Locals become opposed to tourism, and people become aware of economic, social and environmental problems that occur.
  • Further growth is prevented.
  • Tourist visits decrese and original and physical attractions have beem lost.

Rejuvenation

  • Losses of origianl attractions are compensated for by new (man made) facilities.
  • 'New' tourists are different social or age groups to the original groups.
9 of 18

Making National Parks sustainable

  • Repairing stone walls
  • Limiting car parking = more people use public transport
  • Speed restrictions on lakes (10 mph on Windermere) = safe for wildlife
  • Ban 2nd homes = more houses for locals
  • Ban vehicle access = less polution
  • Park and Ride schemes = less pollution, less cars in centre
  • Encourage time share holiday homes
  • Improve public transport = more tourists, less cars
10 of 18

Footpath Erosion

The Problems

  • Loss of Vegetation
  • Unsafe paths                                   All caused by 10 million feet each year
  • Ruins landscape
  • Pressure on environment

Tackling it...

  • Re-route walkers from areas of heavy erosion
  • Ban walkers from some areas all together
  • Replace some areas with natural stone - hard wearing and fit with landscape
  • Lay down geotextile mats - to bind the soil together and promote growth
  • Natural Stone is sustainable as it blends in with the landscape and is hard wearing, it will last longer
11 of 18

Foothpath Erosion

Advantages of Tackling it

  • The landscape has time to be repaired
  • Looks better
  • Paths are nicer to walk on
  • Lake District is more enjoyable

Disadvantages of Tackling it

  • It costs a lot of money
  • Getting equipment to the mountains is not easy
12 of 18

Mass Tourism

  • Tourism on a large scale
  • Usually a particular purpose or location. E.g. Jamaica
  • E.g. Skiing in a certain mountain region or sunbathing on a certain beach
  • Relates to the DEVELOPMENT and CONSOLIDATION stages of Butler's model

Positives

  • New facilities may be open to locals (SOCIAL)
  • new infrastructure  must be put in place this will benefit locals. E.g. Norman Manley Airport (SOCIAL)
  • Tourism brings jobs - 220,000 people (8%) employed by tourism. People gain regular work with a reliable wage (ECONOMIC)
  • Construction jobs go to locals (SOCIAL/ECONOMIC)
13 of 18

Mass Tourism

Negatives

  • Local people might bot be able to afford facilities - Three Palms Golf Course is too expensive. (SOCIAL)
  • Few employees are well paid. The high level jobs are taken by people who aren't local. (SOCIAL/ECONOMIC)
  • Tourists can prefer familiar food, lots is imported from the USA. (SOCIAL/ECONOMIC)
  • Construction jobs are only temporary. (SOCIAL/ECONOMIC)
  • Most activities are seasonal (skiing happens in winter), locals are out of work for half the year. (ENVIRONMENTAL)
  • Profits go to companies who are based in wealthy companies. Resorts don't get anything. 'Sandals' and 'Virgin' Holidays are based in the UK and the USA. (ENVIRONMENTAL)
14 of 18

Extreme Tourism

  • Cliff Diving, Jamaica
  • 'Zone of Alienation', Chernobyl
  • Ice Diving, White Sea, Russia
  • Trekking, Pakistan
  • White-Water Rafting, Peru
  • Rock Climbing, Yosemite
  • 4x4 Driving, Namibia
  • Canoeing, Amazon
  • Dog Sledding, Greenland

The Extreme Tourist

  • Young and active (late 20's, early 30's)
  • No family/children
  • Confident/outgoing
  • Athletic, physically fit
  • Interested in the outdoors
  • In a well paid job
  • Male?
15 of 18

Is Extreme Tourism increasing/decreasing?

Increasing

  • There are more wealthy people who want to 'try something different'.
  • The internet means more companies can advertise (brochures are too expensive for this small market).
  • Little invesment is needed to set theem up. (No buliding costs, hotels etc.)
  • The 'Extreme tourist' has more disposable income. They can pay a premium.
  • Remote areas become more accessible through improved transport.

Deceasing

  • More people stay in the UK for a holiday because of the recession.
  • Budget airlines (Easyjet, Ryan Air) make cheap flights available to European cities.
16 of 18

Extreme Environemt Case Study - Antartica

Attractions

  • Cruise around island
  • Small boat landing
  • Kayaking
  • Visiting research stations
  • Scuba-Diving

Most tourists come from

1. USA

2. UK

3. Germany

17 of 18

Extreme Environemt Case Study - Antartica

Problems

  • Animals are disturbed - they may leave eggs or young as a result.
  • Soon larger ships will be allowed, and the volume of tourists will exceed a sustainable limit.
  • Larger ships create oil spills, which damages wildlife and habitats.
  • Ships can strike rocks or ice. This damages the environment.

Controlling it

  • Place limitations on how many tourists can visit.
  • Ban sking and canoeing - people can do this in many different countries.
  • Ban cheap flights.
  • Make more places SSSI's to control where tourists go.
18 of 18

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Tourism resources »