Geography - Tourism

A set of cards to help revise Tourism.

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  • Created by: FiFi
  • Created on: 22-04-11 12:06

What is Tourism?

Tourism is visiting other countries on a holiday, or business trip, which brings income to that particular place.

Tourism is travel for recreation, leisure or business. Tourists travel away for more than 24 hours but less than a year.


  • Beach holiday, Lanzarote
  • Shopping to London


  • Charity Work, Chile
  • Skiing in the Alps


  • Conference in Manchester
  • Visiting other companies in New Zealand.
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How has Tourism has changed?

  • Very rare in 1950.
  • Steady increase after 1970.
  • Increased by 781 million over 55 years.
  • Tourism rapidly increased after 1985.
  • Between 1950 - 1960 tourism rose by 84 million.
  • Between 2000 - 2005 tourism rose by 119 million, up 35 million.


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Positives and Negatives of Tourism


  • Brings income to the country (10% of worlds GDP)
  • Creates jobs (100 million jobs worldwide)
  • Enriches culture and ennvironment


  • Congestion/overcrowding
  • Badly bulit buildings = people put in danger
  • Litter and water pollution
  • Increasese rift between poor and rich
  • Air and noise pollution
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Differences between rich and poor countries

Rich Countries

  • Tourism only a small part of the economy
  • 5% of income in UK comes from tourism
  • Domestic tourists just as importsnt as overseas ones
  • Creates jobs
  • Provides income

Poor Countries

  • Tourism is essential to the economy
  • Visitors taxed to help pay for the services they use
  • In Barbados, 80% of income is from tourism
  • Jobs are informal and based around the service industry
  • Tourists spend money in £, $ or Euros which is essential to foreign countries
  • Overseas tourists are more important than domestic ones.
  • Create jobs
  • Provides income
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Importance of tourism in the UK

  • Tourists spend a total of £11.9 billion
  • In 2002,  24 million visitors came to the UK
  • In 2007, over 32.8 million visitors came and spent £16 billion
  • Overseas visitors arrive in Britain every second of the day, ebery day of the year
  • Tourists pay £12.7 billion in tax, enough to pay 30,000 nurses
  • Tourism creates 2.1 million jobs - 7% of all employment
  • Tourism contributes £85 billion to the economy - 2.7% of the GDP
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What effects tourism?

Foot and Mouth

  • National parks closed
  • certain areas restricted. E.g. countryside, farms

September 11th

  • People scared of their plane bieng bombed

Iraq War

  • Oil more expensive - supply not secure
  • Prices go up

SARS Outbreak

  • Restricted travel from certain areas
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What effects tourism?

7/7 Bombings

  • Damage to transport
  • People are scared of death/injury
  • Terrosim - happening again

Credit Crunch

  • Not enough disposable earnings to afford a holiday
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Butler's Model

Exploration Stage

  • A small number of tourists explore a new location
  • For personal adventure or new cultures
  • Economic, Social and environmental imapcts are almost nil


  • Acceptance by the locals is increased, so the destination becomes popular.
  • Travel and Accomodation is improved.


  • Local people become more involved in attracting people to the area.
  • In LEDC's, control passes to a MEDC to manage it.
  • Package Holidays begin
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Butler's Model


  • Tourism has become an important economic and social activity.
  • This changes the traditional lifestyles. (farm land is given to resorts)
  • Increased wealth, jobs etc. starts to happen.
  • Numbers of tourists is still high but starts to slow down


  • Locals become opposed to tourism, and people become aware of economic, social and environmental problems that occur.
  • Further growth is prevented.
  • Tourist visits decrese and original and physical attractions have beem lost.


  • Losses of origianl attractions are compensated for by new (man made) facilities.
  • 'New' tourists are different social or age groups to the original groups.
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Making National Parks sustainable

  • Repairing stone walls
  • Limiting car parking = more people use public transport
  • Speed restrictions on lakes (10 mph on Windermere) = safe for wildlife
  • Ban 2nd homes = more houses for locals
  • Ban vehicle access = less polution
  • Park and Ride schemes = less pollution, less cars in centre
  • Encourage time share holiday homes
  • Improve public transport = more tourists, less cars
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Footpath Erosion

The Problems

  • Loss of Vegetation
  • Unsafe paths                                   All caused by 10 million feet each year
  • Ruins landscape
  • Pressure on environment

Tackling it...

  • Re-route walkers from areas of heavy erosion
  • Ban walkers from some areas all together
  • Replace some areas with natural stone - hard wearing and fit with landscape
  • Lay down geotextile mats - to bind the soil together and promote growth
  • Natural Stone is sustainable as it blends in with the landscape and is hard wearing, it will last longer
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Foothpath Erosion

Advantages of Tackling it

  • The landscape has time to be repaired
  • Looks better
  • Paths are nicer to walk on
  • Lake District is more enjoyable

Disadvantages of Tackling it

  • It costs a lot of money
  • Getting equipment to the mountains is not easy
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Mass Tourism

  • Tourism on a large scale
  • Usually a particular purpose or location. E.g. Jamaica
  • E.g. Skiing in a certain mountain region or sunbathing on a certain beach
  • Relates to the DEVELOPMENT and CONSOLIDATION stages of Butler's model


  • New facilities may be open to locals (SOCIAL)
  • new infrastructure  must be put in place this will benefit locals. E.g. Norman Manley Airport (SOCIAL)
  • Tourism brings jobs - 220,000 people (8%) employed by tourism. People gain regular work with a reliable wage (ECONOMIC)
  • Construction jobs go to locals (SOCIAL/ECONOMIC)
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Mass Tourism


  • Local people might bot be able to afford facilities - Three Palms Golf Course is too expensive. (SOCIAL)
  • Few employees are well paid. The high level jobs are taken by people who aren't local. (SOCIAL/ECONOMIC)
  • Tourists can prefer familiar food, lots is imported from the USA. (SOCIAL/ECONOMIC)
  • Construction jobs are only temporary. (SOCIAL/ECONOMIC)
  • Most activities are seasonal (skiing happens in winter), locals are out of work for half the year. (ENVIRONMENTAL)
  • Profits go to companies who are based in wealthy companies. Resorts don't get anything. 'Sandals' and 'Virgin' Holidays are based in the UK and the USA. (ENVIRONMENTAL)
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Extreme Tourism

  • Cliff Diving, Jamaica
  • 'Zone of Alienation', Chernobyl
  • Ice Diving, White Sea, Russia
  • Trekking, Pakistan
  • White-Water Rafting, Peru
  • Rock Climbing, Yosemite
  • 4x4 Driving, Namibia
  • Canoeing, Amazon
  • Dog Sledding, Greenland

The Extreme Tourist

  • Young and active (late 20's, early 30's)
  • No family/children
  • Confident/outgoing
  • Athletic, physically fit
  • Interested in the outdoors
  • In a well paid job
  • Male?
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Is Extreme Tourism increasing/decreasing?


  • There are more wealthy people who want to 'try something different'.
  • The internet means more companies can advertise (brochures are too expensive for this small market).
  • Little invesment is needed to set theem up. (No buliding costs, hotels etc.)
  • The 'Extreme tourist' has more disposable income. They can pay a premium.
  • Remote areas become more accessible through improved transport.


  • More people stay in the UK for a holiday because of the recession.
  • Budget airlines (Easyjet, Ryan Air) make cheap flights available to European cities.
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Extreme Environemt Case Study - Antartica


  • Cruise around island
  • Small boat landing
  • Kayaking
  • Visiting research stations
  • Scuba-Diving

Most tourists come from

1. USA

2. UK

3. Germany

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Extreme Environemt Case Study - Antartica


  • Animals are disturbed - they may leave eggs or young as a result.
  • Soon larger ships will be allowed, and the volume of tourists will exceed a sustainable limit.
  • Larger ships create oil spills, which damages wildlife and habitats.
  • Ships can strike rocks or ice. This damages the environment.

Controlling it

  • Place limitations on how many tourists can visit.
  • Ban sking and canoeing - people can do this in many different countries.
  • Ban cheap flights.
  • Make more places SSSI's to control where tourists go.
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