GEOGRAPHY - TOURISM

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  • Created by: Rosa
  • Created on: 15-05-13 12:59

Reasons for the growth of global tourism

Economic: 

  • rising incomes and wages 
  • widening range of destinations within middle income range
  • more time and disposopal income 
  • budget airlines - 'air miles' rewards for travel and tourism

Social 

  • increase in numbers of days of paid leave - holiday
  • increasing desire to experirnce different cultures and landscapes
  • high levels of international migration mean more poeple have relatives abroad

Political 

  • many governments have invested heavily to encourage tourism
  • government backing for major international events such as Olympic Games 
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Reasons for the decline of global tourism

  • Natural disasters - such as earthquakes and floods have a major impact on tourism when they occur
  • Terrorism - attacks or the fear of them can deter visitors from going to certain countries (especially for short term) 
  • Health Scares - e.g. bird flu in 2004 which broke out in Thailand - short term impact
  • Exchange Rate Fluctuations - e.g. value of dollar rises against the pound it is more expensive to travel 
  • Political Uncertainties - governments may advise citizens not to visit country if the political situation is tense
  • increasing competition- 'more exciting' destinations - traditional destinations may see visitor numbers fall

New Types of Tourism :

  • theme parks - creating artificial destinations - such as in Orlando - Disney
  • Cruising - growing very fast - North Americans take the most cruises - all ages and incomes
  • ecotourism- to avoid mass tourism by connecting with nature - unspoiled settings
  • medical therapy - cheaper general or cosmetic surgery - undergo surgery shortly after arrival and spend rest of holiday in aftercare or tourism 
  • religious holidays - visit holy places associated with their religion such as Roman Catholics visiting Rome 

For LEDC's tourism potential is signifcant for reducing poverty - arrivals who went to the countries rose by 48% between 2000-2005 compared to the world average being 17%. There is a big link between GNP per capita and expenditure on tourism per person by country

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CASE STUDY: China a new tourism destination

Outbound Tourism - increased rapidly over past decade - 2005 31 million Chinese travelled abroad spending $15.2million and will rise and the reasons are: 

  • rising disposable incomes and longer holidays (intrest in overseas) 
  • relaxed political restrictions - Chinese Government now given 129 approved destination status (ADS)- more promotions and advertising from othe countries - more travel services 
  • main factor - rapid growth of Chinas economy over last 20 years- rising incomes so save and spend more on homes , clothes etc. and on tourism
  • A while ago strict goverment regulations prevented people travelling abroad- 1983 government allowed people to participate in organised trips to see friends in Hong Kong 
  • Without ADS people woul dnot be able to travel to a country- UK recieved in 2005 - exceptions however include America and Canada
  • Middle class has expanded so Chinese travel tastes have increased - higher incomes people can afford more exotic holidays - destinations making big effort to attract Chinese as potentially large amounts of money are involved 
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CASE STUDY : China a new tourism destination

China as a destination - 22 million people visited China in 2006 comparing to 300,000 in 1978 - most visited country by 2020. Spring and Autumn are best times to visit , 2008 Beijing held Olympics important boost. Key attractions in China are:

  • Forbidden City and Tiananmen Square
  • Terra Cotta Warriors in Xian
  • 6700km-long Great Wall of China 
  • Giant Pandas of Wolong Nature Reserve 

Impact on employment and GDP - 2.1% of people are empolyed in travel and tourism industry. 70% of tourist revenues come from internal tourism. Chinas booming econmy means chinese people can spend more on tourism due to higher incomes, which leads to more economic growth- Beijing is Chinas top tourist industryand contributes 8% to citys GDP.

Tibet - new £2.3 billion railway , now possible to travel from Beijing to Tibetan capital Lhasa in less than 48hours - bring big economic benefits- poorest part of country- Tibet more accessible for tourism and also buisness - however there is a fear it will undermine Tibetan Culture. 

Sanya , Hainan Island - 2nd largest city on the island - leading place for domestic tourists but also becoming popular with foreign tourists. Many travel from Beijing or Shanghai , island has tropical climate and palmed beaches , good golf courses , spectacualr rainforest , mountain scenery and historical intrest- tourism huge investment in infrastructure- chrter flights from Uk started in 2007 offering 10 days in Sanya and 3 in Beijing 

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Social and Cultural Impacts of growth of Tourism

  • loss of locally owned land as tourism companies by most scenic places
  • abandonmnet of traditional practices and values
  • changing community structure 
  • alcoholism and drug abuse as they become more avaliable to satisfy tourist
  • crime - wealth that tourists bring provides more oppurtunities for local criminals but tourists may commit crimes themselves 
  • loss of housing for local people as visitors by second homes 
  • tourists affend local people e.g. clothes they wear (use a lot of water and electricity) 

Positive Factors : 

  • can increase the range of social facilities for local people 
  • greater understanding between people of different cultures 
  • can help develop foreign language skills in host countries 
  • cultures joining together in major international events such as the Olympics Games can have a very positive global impact 
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Economic Impact

Satellite accounting (accounting that includes not only direct expenditure and reciepts but also the indirect knock-on effects)  - in 2007 231.1 million employed and 10.4% of world GDP and 12% of worlds exports- however there are problems: 

  • Package holidays - most of money stays in the country where the holiday was purchased
  • Most jobs that are created are low paid , seasonal - Overseas labour may be brought in for more senior manegement positions 
  • some destinations tourists spend most money in hotels so dosent benefit wider community
  • locations become over dependent on tourism and suffer if visitor numbers fall 

However there are some positives : 

  • provides jobs and incomes - has the multiplier effect 
  • it provides governments with considerable tax revenues 
  • by providing jobs in rural areas it prevents rural to urban migration 
  • it can create openings for small buisnesses 
  • support many jobs in the informal sector 
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Environmental Impacts

Sustainable Tourism - tourism organised in such a way that its level can be sustsined for future generations without creating irreparble environmental , social and economic damage. 

  • developing countries - golf courses have taken away land from locals , and also consume vast amounts of water- water required by a golf course can supply a village of 5000
  • Belize and Costa Rica reefs have been blasted to allow for unhindered water sports- Great Barrier Reef recieves 2 million visitors a year/people steal coral- in Red Sea made to go on a lecture about ecology of local reefs 
  • polloution into the air - planes and cars
  • litter causing visual pollution 
  • removal of habitats for construction 

Positive impacts - tourists can fund the management of protected areas such as national parks 

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Sustainability - How can tourism be managed?

Environmentalists are trying to make travellers aware of their 'destination footprint' and urging people to: 

  • 'FLY LESS AND STAY LONGER' 
  • CARBON-OFFSET THEIR FLIGHTS
  • CONSIDER LOW TRAVEL 

People may decide to holiday in their own country (every second holiday) to reduce air transport. Or using local hotels and guesthouses rather than large chain hotels so more money remains in local communities

Preservation - not allowing any development 

Conservation - allows for development that do not damage the character of a development

Quotas- visitor numbers are not allowed to exceed a sustainable level

There needs to be a balnce between social and environmental needs 

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CASE STUDY : Sustainable tourism Ecuador/Galapagos

Ecuador - international tourism is Ecuadors 3rd largest source of foreign income after the export of oil and bananas - no. of visitors have increased both to mainland and Galapogas Islands- tourists attracted here due to the flora and fauna , and country has 10% of worlds plant species- much of land is protetced. As visitors numbers began to rise they did not want to suffer negative effects of mass tourism. They want it to be as eco-friendly as possible , eco-tourism has helped bring needed income to poorest parts of country - provided people with an alternative way of making a living 

One example is El Pbutano which was until recently a rainforest farm , now it has developed into a sustaianble eco-tourism destination run by the farmer- a max of 16 guests can stay (max 300 guests a year) - the farm still works as working farm with outputs which include bananas and fruit. Farmhouse is made out of sustaiable resources , local wood and bamboo with a plam leaf roof (replace every 15 years)- tours in the forest with local guide are avaliable to learn about local plants and see community projects (OVERNIGHT CAMP)- group is small to reduce damage to forest on exisiting paths but changed to prevent erosion of pathways- cost is $40 per person per nigth - annual income of $48,000 of which half goes to local community for improvements and services. Tourists have to follow regulations such as all rubbish e.g. empty bottles must be taken away by the tourists , always check before touching plants and animals , when walking in the forest do not touch any branches (have thorns)and do not pull on vines and branches - avoid any displays of affection as in the commuinty it is considered to be rude.

Galapogas islands - islands were at risk and early 2007 and visitor permits and fligths were susoended-all but 3% of islands are a national park - visitor numbers are currently 100,000 a year and rising- national park fee of £65 must be paid on arrival- attractions include the tortoise - problems that are identifies- 15,000 people are living on the island illegally and 18,000 legal islanders (growing pop.). Illegal fishing of sharks and sea-cucmber is all time high. No. of cruise ships conmtinuing to rise. Controversial opening of hotel 2006. - Ecuador government anxiuos to protect area , but also recieve money and income from tourism - careful magement required to ensure right balance

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CASE STUDY : Managing Antartica

No. people visiting is growing , envrinmentalists are becoming concerned - big worry large cruise ships. Anatrticas ecosystem is very fragile , the ecosystem is unique and are of great scientific intrest , summer tourist season concides with peak wildlife breeding periods , visitor pressure is being left on cultural heritage sites such as old whaling and sealing stations. 

Current restrictions are : 

  • no. of onshore visitors is limited 
  • most sensitive areas are avoided 
  • keep 5m away from wildlife - particulary during breeding season 
  • have to take rubbish back to ships 
  • tourists not to collect souvenirs
  • tourism ships have to prove that they have equipment to clean up any oil spills they maybe responsible for  
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CASE STUDY : Tourism in Nepal

Attractions - there are many different landscapes (including jungle) , and there is a great biodiversity including 6000 species of plants and 175 species of mammals including red panda and elephant. People can also learn about different cultures - Sherpas = Buddhists -Oppurtunities : 

  • More Employment - as more guided tours , cooks needed for hikes and treks , porters needed to carry tourist belongings up the mountain (5$ a day) , building and running of lodges & BUILT A NEW AIRPORT IN LUKLA BRING SUPPLIES AND TOURISTS & JOBS
  • Community development - guest houses are built at higher altidudes which many women run on their own as husbands are on treks with tourists (change relationship and fewer children) , HEP stations built so less wood chopped down, now clean water and toilets which were built purposely for toilets , more farming of potatoes , each village has a budhist tremple 
  • Environmental  - illegal to cut down trees instead noe starting to use keresone, Sharpers now collect Yack dung to vuild houses with , HEP means less wood used Sharpers diet has improved and clean water so live longer

Problems created by tourists : fewer people left in farming so less food grown and therefore prices rise , fine for tourists but not for locals , many forced to rent out yacks to trekking groups as prices are too high, Young Sherpas are influenced by Western Culture , some tourists do not respect Buddhist religion (women legs). Men away from village more so women more important in society but not many children born. Not a constant flow of money all year as tourists may only arrive at certaing times in year.  Much waste from tourists - visual polloution e.g. plastic bottles take ages to degrade- scheme for helicopters to remove glass bottles stopped- sewage polloution as toom nay toursits and tree growth is 50% slower at sea level 

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CASE STUDY : Benidorm

Located on the Costa Blanca , NE Spain , most tourists from Spain (55%) or UK (23%). Benidorm is popular as its europes largest beach resort , there is nice weather , beach , sea , late nights , cheap food and drink , a nice atomosphere , clubs. Benidorm has changed over the past 40yrs , as in 1960s there were no high rise buildings , many used to make money from fishing. In 1970s Alicante airport opened , now there are over 200 hotels with over 30,000 hotel rooms , and are high rise developments up to 10 stories. A network of road was built such as a toll road to link other cities such as Madrid. Now there are 50 flights per day and over 5 million people travel here. 

Oppurtunities : 

  • There is more employment such as in shops , bars and restaraunts , 75,000 people live on tourism. There are new roads and airports been built , and they recycle water which is then used on watering crops e.g. oranges , better facilities and leisure such as aqual land.  Litter bins are emptied regulary and prominades are swept (en day people go along the beach and collect rubbish) - is a green flag beach - sea is clean. Crime is low due to many policeman

Problems created by Tourism Growth: 

  • Seasonality - in the summer 1/2 million visitors a week - jobs are seasonal 
  • A lot of water is used , in hotels , pools , and they recieve less than 10cm3 of rainfall a year - now a semi-arid areas - dam is now built . A lot of rubbish and litter
  • loss of vegeation due to high rise buildings and new roads 
  • noise pollution - from clubs - upset locals 
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