geography theme 3 case studies

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 21-05-13 18:04

acid rain- china


  • 26 million tonnes of SO2 emitted 
  • worlds biggest acid rain polluter 
  • NOx emissions increased 50% between 1995 and 2005 


  • threatening foodchains in lakes and cropslands
  • acidify soil reduce yield 
  • crop growers and fish farmers struggle 
  • 400,000 people die every year due to air pollution diseases
  • desertification- loss of vegetation protection 


  • gov. shut 100's of inefficient coal-fired plants 
  • SO2 monitoring systems- factory scrubbers 
  • kyoto protocol- China is at the stage that Uk was at late 20th century 
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transnational companies - union carbide

  • location: Bhopal, India - centre, edge of large lake, capital region 1.4+ million pop.
  • multinational company 
  • plant built 1969- employs 700 people 
  • used to make batteries now makes pesticides 

december 1984 


  • systems failed and gov and company tried to cover up- deny responsibilty 
  • cost- halved workforce and cheap steel 
  • villagers starved and had no compensation 


  • year later - protest 
  • temp was rising in factory to 610 degrees celcius 
  • gas hit villagers burnt lungs, eyes and nose 
  • 2500+ died 
  • MIC poison 
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fair trade- cocoa in Ghana

trade blocs problems 

  • price farmers get is so low due  to way of trade on world market 
  • income fluctuates and farmers dont earn fair wage

ghana cocoa 

  • 75 % exported to european union
  • beans ground to cocoa powder and sent to other EU countries- UK, austria, belgium 
  • only 8p of a chocolate bar goes to farmers- 28p to chocolate company 

fair trade 

  • farmers agree and stable pay 
  • fair trade premium- farmers get additional pay 

kuapa Kokoo cooperative 

  • offers premiums 
  • training farmers to deal with pests 
  • members borrow money from bank 
  • farmers elect member who makes the official deals 
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location of quaternary/ footloose- cambridge scien

  • footloose- not tied to specific location/ not orientated to anything 
  • location: near uni, endge of city, green field, East Anglia, city's northern by-pass
  • high tech industry and research and development 

what it aims to provide 

  • high quality labs, industries 
  • close link to cambridge uni 
  • 1997 microsoft invested £50 million into research and devlopment 

what makes it good location 

  • development space, easy access (M11, airports, trains), nice environment, car park

benefits/drawbacks for cambridge 

  • house prices rise/house prices rise 
  • employs 1/4 of cambridge workers/traffic 
  • other companies move to cambridge (multiplier affect)/green belt 
  • called 'silicon fen' because it has lots of quaternary industries 
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NIC- Singapore

timeline of development 

  • 1869- suez canal opened Europe and Mediterranean sea to red sea and far east 
  • 1942- japanese take over and invade - defence location for UK and USA
  • 1946- british rule and chinese communities fight for independence 
  • 1956- self-gov 
  • 1963- become part of malaysia fed.
  • 1965- fully independent 

land use 

  • purpose-built industrial estates- near housing for workforce
  • jurong port- largest concentration of industry (steel work,petro chemicals,) busiest in world- 700 ships in port 
  • science park- funded for research and development 
  • offshore islands to the south- oil refining areas- imported and seperated- supplies petro chemicals to jurong 
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location of industry- Swindon


  • south britain, close to port and london 
  • good transfer links- motorways/main roads, railways 
  • markets in Bath and London 


  • cheap land, villagers to work, expansion,
  • brownfield sites, business park already placed in 


  • villagers object, narrow and winding roads, only factories close are old(1960's), 
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interdependence- fashion industry

interdependence- complex patterns of trade, communication and aid linking countries 


  • source: pakistan, australia, japan 
  • manufacturing: japan, pakistan, germany, france
  • making and finishing: france, spain, turkey,UK
  • design and branding: USA
  • sold: UK 

who benefits:

  • UK and USA receive highest profit - well educated and good working conditions 

who loses out:

  • manufacturing- not much profit given low wage-  poor working conditions, uneducated so unaware of poor pay and desperate need for work 
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changing location of industry- south wales

rise of industry in area:

  • 3 types of rock- limestone, iron ore and coal 
  • easy access and valleys so coal industries already underground 
  • ports- swansea and cardiff 
  • assured market- british empire 

fall of industry in area

  • competition of other countries- British empire collapsed 
  • raw materials run out and alternatives found 

location change for new industry

  • raw materials now imported and ports and docks handle this 
  • steelworks closer to water- coolant 
  • steelworks integrated plants- all processes on site 
  • steelworks- at break of bulk sites reducing overhead costs 
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growth of superpowers- China

  • china's growth forecast raised in 2009 from 6% to 7%
  • rest of world expected to shrink in GDP by 3%
  • A £356 Billion stimulus package has helped the economy in this growth, 
  •  exports are still down as the world accommodates the cut backs of the financial crisis

problems with chinas growth 

  • accumulates huge environmental cost- affects people and countries reputation 
  • 1/4 global coal reserves found here- over took USA as CO2 emitters and coal consumers 
  • 400,000 people die of pollution related diseases every year 
  • 1/3 affected by acid rain 

impacts on rest of the world 

  • £6 billion loan to Shanghai cooperation oragnisation whom it is a part of to aid the other countries economic growth 
  • China is Russia’s second largest trade partner after Europe, with total trade between the two nations being over $80Billion
  • These increased links are being seen as an attempt to increase energy influence and energy security 
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