pride in India- improving squatter settlements
- aims: stop urbanisation by improving rural life education and support for people in shanties
- education- trained teachers and built 2 new schools
- health and nutrition- 200 toilet blocks built over 35 villages and vitamins given to children
- economic cdevelopment- children living far from school given bicycles
- community development- youth clubs teach practical skills
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Kiberia- access to services in LEDC
- over 300,000 people have HIV/AIDS
- 46 yrs is average life expectancy
- 80% of people are unemployed
- government: provide no services, sewers, running water, schoolc, hospitals, roads or rubbish
- collection services provided by private companies who charge use- toilets, water...
- houses are 3m by 3m house 5
- people want and need... formal jobs, education, good shops and free access to basic services better housing - materials and space electricity and privacy
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- push factors: low living standards, wages and basic needs unhygienic conditions and poor building materials
- pull factors: employment, higher wages and seasonal employment
- problems: border patrol, dangerous desert area to cross 1-2 million people try to cross border each year
- racial issues between mexicans and americans
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- benefits of growth: more services, supermarkets, jobs, customers to small businesses services run more often and are better
- drawbacks of growth: habitats destroyed noise, litter and air pollution increase and crime rate green belt used up
- things leading to development: push factors in CBD transport and easier access out of area larger community
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burgess model and growth- Ipswich urban developmen
- location: largest settlement in suffolk , 70 miles from London, near major port of felixstowe
- A12, A14 and railways are nearby - close to sea (english channel) and orwell estuary good
- accessibilty- sea links, roads links, rialway links pop. grown from 1940 to 1970, 121,000 (peak) then decreased due to counter-urbanisation
- growth in industry and settlements on suburbs due to business parks like ransomes and copdock development in housing
- refurbishments of old victorian buildings and housing and flats on brown field sites since 1991
- retail cardinal park transition zone brownfield site- cineworld, superstores, park and ride, CBD pedestrainised in 1992 -£900,000 business and industrial
- sites extended- ransomes europark, victorian industrial zone wants to be redeveloped into CBD - flat land encourages modern enterprises
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access to services in city and regeneration- Leice
- Leicester has recently undergone a redevelopment process.
- The area was suffering from deprivation in a variety of ways.
- Social exclusion was noticeable, for women and ethnic minorities.
- workforce was lacking skills. In order to tackle this, and attract investment, a rebranding scheme was initiated.
- Waterfront development began, to attract sophisticated restaurants and shops along the river.
- Economically, a new business quarter was set up – creating 4000 jobs.
- Community schools and a joint retail zone were also aspects of the new plan.
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changing services in city - sheffield, south yorks
- meadowhall shopping centre built in 1990- 280 shops lots of parking and visitors
- shops in sheffield declined due to movement to shopping centre
- 15% trade loss due to this move
- fewer shops in rural areas due to increase in transport to meadowhall
- sheffield trying to fight back- redevelop, improve parking, reduce crime
- services location have changed due to improved transport links more out of town shopping centres- space, cheap cost, on-site parking
- larger retail shops and larger chain stores provide cheaper prices in shopping centre compared to small boutique retail shops selling at higher cost
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