Standard of living & Quality of life
Standard of living - Measure of the relative wealth of individuals or families
Quality of life - Measure of the happiness and contentment of an individual or family
Economic - Amount of poverty, Adult literacy, Jobs, Income amount
Environmental - Traffic levels, pollution levels, vandalism, traffic noise, Air quality
Social - Personal health, Amount of crime, Facilities, Schools, Life expectancy
Decline in Birmingham & Urban Deprivation
Decline of manufacturing - Coal supplies had all been mined and used, and couldnt burn it for electricity. Wages were low because factories couldn't invest and they were losing their markets. Entrepreneurs were only interested in the newer businesses, because the older ones were unattractive and far away from modern cities.
1. Factories close and businesses move to out of town sites 2. Unemployment - not as many jobs are needed (new machinery) 3. Shops/services close (not enough customers) 4. Further unemployment (businesses had all moved out of town) 5. Migration and poverty - young and qualified people move out of town 6. Decline - people left without jobs and inner city has become run-down
Urban Deprivation - Economic stress - unemployment, many pensioners, single parents, overcrowding Social stress - crime, limited work skills, racial tension Housing stress - families without a car, low-income families, lacking more than one basic amenities Environmental stress - noise, derelict land, pollution
Why businesses want to develop there;
- More pleasant environment for workers
- Costs are lower
- Area appeals to more customers
- No traffic to move goods
Types of busineses that want to develop there;
- Housebuilders - people want to live on the out-skirts of a town
- Developers - land is available, parking is easy, less traffic
- Leisure - build country clubs that appeal to more people
- Businesses - more pleasant environment for workers, appeals to more customers
Conflicts because of these developments;
- Farmland lost and less food would be able to be grown
- Wildlife lost and environment gets damaged
- Road congestion, countryside roads can't cope with large populations
Decentralisation and Green-belt Policy
Decentralisation - Movement of housing/industry/offices/retail businesses to the rural-urban fringe, where they can develop.
Green-belt policy -
Government policy used to prevent the spread of cities into the countryside.
Difficult to get planning permission for new homes to be built on the green-belt.
Preserves the environment.
Wildlife can still survive in it's natural habitat.
Avoids towns/cities merging together.
Counter-urbanisation, Greenfield and Brownfield
Counter-urbanisation - The movement of people and businesses from large cities to smallertowns and rural areas. Push Factors; overcrowded housing, traffic congestion, noisey, crime, poor schools, pollution Pull Factors; less noise pollution, nicer views, less congestion, less crime, better schools, more space for families Greenfield sites (sites that haven't been built on before) - Advantages - new modernised urban areas, houses in the countryside will be more affordable, room for population growth, more jobs. Disadvantages - another noisey town, commuters to different towns, merging towns, eventually become derelict. Brownfield sites (sites that have been built on before) - Advantages - re-built and modernised, roads don't need to be built. Disadvantages - nobody uses them, people won't clear the land and re-build on it, people would prefer to build on greenfield sites.
UK Planning system and Stakeholders
UK Planning system -
National Government - Sets priorities for country
Regional Assembly - Creates a sustainable strategy
Officers - Create a local development framework in local authority
Individual householder (concerned a new road will disturb peace)
Parish council (keen to see and increase in facilities)
Pressure group (lobbying to pretect a specific area of countryside)
Development consultants (works on behalf of large landowner, wanting to build a complex)