Geography Tectonics unit 4 Case studies

For the tectonic unit, here are the event profiles for some case studies.

The source of the each information is in brackets

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Mount St Helens

Date: May, 1980

Boundaries: Jaun de Fuca Plate meets North American Plate (get revising)

VEI: 5

Duration: 24hrs

Areal Extent: Lahars reached 50 miles away

Volc Type: Composite (wikipedia)

Details: 5.1 eq triggered landslide which released pressure - generate eruption

            17 pyrcolastic flows

            Erupted sideways

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Mount Soufiere, Montserrat

Date: July, 1995 to 1997

Boundaries: North American Plate subducted under Carribean Plate (Geofile)

VEI: 3

Duration: 2yrs of gentle eruption, large one in 1997 then conitnued fro months (edexcel)

Magma: Andesitic (Geofile)

Volc Type: Composite (edexcel)

Details:Population 5,164

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Eyafjallajökull, Iceland

Date: March,1940 (Geoactive)

Boundaries: divergence of Eurasian plate & North American Plate (Geoactive)

VEI: 4 (Wikipedia)

Duration: 7 months (Geoactive)

Areal Extent: Ash cloud spread across Europe and near Canada

Volcano Type: Composite (due to magma plume causes this)

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Loma Prieta, San Fransico

Date: Oct, 1989 (wikipedia)

Boundaries: San Andreas Fault [a transform fault] (wikipedia)

Magnitude: 6.9   (wikipedia)

Duration: 10-15 seconds (Wikipedia)

Areal Extent: hit san fransico bay, tremors reported 400miles away (BBC News)

Focus Depth: 18km

Epicentre: Santa Cruz mountains (wikipedia)

Details: Liquefaction occured in Bay area - caused by rubble from the 1906 eq was pushed into bay area and then built on, making ground unstable.

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Kashmir, Pakistan

Date: Oct, 2005

Boundaries: collsion of Eurasian plate and Indian Plate

Magnitude: 7.6

Focus Depth: 26km

Epicentre: 19km North East of Muzaffarabad

(USGS and Wikipedia)

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Japan Tsunami

Date: March, 2011

Boundaries: Pacific plate subducts under Eurasian (Geofile)

Magnitude:  9.0 (Geofile)

Wave Height: 23ft (infoplease)

Areal Extent: Hit Japan

Focus Depth: 30km  (USGS)

Details: Pacific tsunami warning center issued warnings

            Walls weren't high enough, flat land - goes further inland

             Population denisty high on coast

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Indian Tsunami

Date: Dec, 2004 (Geofile)

Boundaries: Subduction of Indian plate under sunda & Burma microplate (geofile)

Magnitude: 9.0 (geoactive)

Wave Height: 115ft (BBC)

Areal extent: hit over 10 countries

Focus Depth: 30km deep (Geoactive)

Epicentre: Approx 200km west of sumatra coast (Geoactive)

Details: removal of mangrove swamps made it travelled further inland

            no warning system then - but is one in place now (geoactive)

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Last erupted 600,000 yrs ago

Boundary: hotspot

Where is it? US yellowstone national park

Volc Type: supervolcano - caldera

VEI: would be 8


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Izmit, Turkey

Date: 1999

Boundaries: North Anatolian Fault Zone - Anatolian plate is being pushed West as it is squeezed between Eurasian plate on the North and both the African plate and the Arabian plate on the south (wikipedia)

Magnitude: 7.6

Duration: 45 seconds

Areal Extent: Town of izmit

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