rainforest extraction - mining in brazil
- the carajas iron ore mining project uses wood from forest to power its iron plants - annual deforestation of 6100km2
- mercury used in gold mining - very toxic. 905 of fish caught surround river tapajas is concentrated with mercury, causes cancer and high miscarriage rates if eaten by tribes
oil extraction in Ecuador
- oil extracted from oriente region of ecuador, toxic waste mixed with crude oil seeps out of 600 unlined pits into subsoil - polluting fresh water and farmland
- many plants like periwinkle (used to cure leukemia) are now endangered species.
gas project in peru
- camisea region there is a larger natural gas and pipeline project: home to many amazonion tribes such as yine,nanti and nahua
- deforestation has caused damage patterns to be altered, habitats destroyed.
- caused soil erosion and landslides resulting in the sitting up of local rivers
- tribal people have caught diseases they are not immune to.
- one in four of the nanti live to be teenagers.
- many roads have been built for this prject and this has attracted colonists to the area and they have further destroyed the forest by setting up farms
logging in cameroon
- large areas of cameroon have been cut down for commercial wood production: roads built by logging companies have opened up forest for illegal loggers and commercial hunting - led to slaughtering of mammals e.g elephant, gorilla
- local Baka wokers breath in toxic products used on the wood - this goes into their lungs and harms them
mining in indonesia
- the freeport mining company mines gold and copper in west papua. mines an area of 3.6 million hectares
- 285,000 tonnes of untreated mining waste is dumped into river Aghawaghen every day - pollutes river and poisons fish
- locals are exploited by being given the lowest paid jobs
- crocodiles and tortoises in the area of Teluk Etna are on the brink of extinction due to pollution
tropical rainforest management: french guiana
- government of france has refused to allow gold mine: IAMGOLD, canadian company wanted to mine gold in the Kaw mountain area.
- this area is home to 700 plant species, 150 different animals and 754 bird species.
- the open cast mine would have affected biodiversity of the area and put water containing cyanide into the kaw swamp
- developing rainforest in sustainable way through ecotourism:
- the governement has allowed american company Merck to look for plants which can be used to make medicines or fragrances for perfumes.
- government will get a share of the profits of any products that are sold
- many areas of the country have developed tourist facilites such as zip wiring and trails throught forest, which are very popular
- since 2008 the governement has not issued any to mine gold or diamonds in the Imataca rainforest reserve or anywhere in the country.
- no need to expolit the minerals for economic reasons due to its oil reserves - this caused attacks on locals by illegal minors
- government will now protect both biodiversity of the forest and locals
- government rejected plans to build a coal fired power plant at Silam: was too close to the ecologically sensitive areas of darvel bay and danum valley
- did not want to pollute the area and more environmentally friendly form of energy would need to be found
- country has vast reserves of coal and gold - gov' will not develop these resources at the expense of the rainforest which has endangered species such as orang - utan
- government going to develop ecotourism emphasising the natural attractions such as world class diving, biologically diverse tropical rainforest.
- in 2001 givaudan, a swiss company sent a team to madagascar to survey for new fragrances:
- it developed 40 arromas which were then sold
- the complany shared profits with the local communties
transport schemes london congestion charge
- reduce emissions
- lower congestions
congestion charge: reduce number of vehicles entering city by making motorists pay to travel into urban areas during heaviest use. London introduced this in 2003, by 2008 it beneficial effects!
- travel levels reduced by 21%
- 45,000 fewer car journeys per day
- increase of 29,000 bus passengers entering zone during morning peak
- 12% increase in cycle journeys in zone
- 12% reduction in emission of nitrous oxide
cambridge park and ride
park and ride: designated parking areas on edge of urban areas and catch bus into town centre
cambridge used this scheme:
- five p&r sites covering all main routes into city
- next to M11, A14
- 4,500 parking spaces available
- double decker bus up 70 people - travels every 10 mintues, mon - sat
- £2.20 per day
- site well lit and security systems operate
- waitrooms, toilets
- car sharing - if half motorists received a lift one day a week - pollution reduced by 10%, traffic jams by 20%
- cycle and walking paths in urban area. milton keynes best area with 273km of cycle paths
- road lanes that allow cars with at keast 2 passengers to use them
- pedestrianised areas - cars no access , bus and trams allow to operate
- road lanes which give priority to buses, easy passage through busy areas
- restricting car parking in central urban areas, so people forced to use public transport