The hydrological cycle
Precipitation- if water droplets become too heavy they fall, as rain, snow ,hail ,dew etc.
Interception by vegetation- When the water is interception by trees and plants
Stem flow- when the water transfers throught the plants to the soil
Surface Storage- when water is stored in the surface of the land i.e in the grass
Infiltration- When the water is transferred through the surface into the soil
The hydrological cycle continued......
Soil moisture storage- When water is stored in the soil
Percolation- When water is transferred from the soil to the rock below(ground)
Groundwater storage- When water is stored in the ground (the rock)
Surface Run-off- When water flows off the surface into the river
Transpiration- when vegetation absorbs water and it is then evaporated by the sun.
Through flow- When water flows through the soil to the river
Groundwater flow-When water flows through the ground(rock) to the river
The Drainage Basin
Watershed- areas of highland whic hseperate the areas of land that are drained by two neighbouring river systems
River Basin- The whole area of land that is drained by a river and its tributaries.
Source- The place where the river begins
Tributary- A mini river that connects to a larger river
Confluence- The point where a tributary joins the main river
Mouth- The point where the river flows into the sea
Flood plain- Area of flat land close to the river which is covered with water when the river floods
Peak Rainfall-is the time of highest rainfall
Peak disharge-the time when the river reaches its highest flow
Lag time- the time which it takes the water to get to the river after heavy rainfall
Freeze-thaw weathering- when there are small cracks in a rock and when it rains water gets trapped in the crack. Overnight the water freezes, whilst the water is frozen it expands and cracks the rock even more. This process is repeated and eventually breaks down the rock.
Biological weathering- when a seed is in the soil beneath some rock the seed germinates and its stem starts growing through the rock. This cracks the rock and the plant will keep growing cracking the rock even more.
Chemical weathering- Rain contains a small amount of acid. When it rains rocks such as limestone are slowly weathered away. After this process is repeated many times it will start to have a noticeable effect. It sometimes takes 1000's of years for this process to work properly.
Soil creep- Heavy rain --> Air space fills with water --> soil increases in volume --> Soil dries out and shrinks--> process repeats--> soil moves slowly downhill
Solifluction- cold climate --> freezing --> melting -->soil becomes saturated --> runs down slope
Mudflow- Heavy rain --> soil becomes saturated --> ,moves down hill very fast
Landslides- Heavy rain --> soil becomes saturated --> moves down hill rapidly
Rockfalls- Heavy weathering --> rock falls down to bottom of slope --> rocks accumalate forming a "scree"
Inner Bend: Slip-off slope-less energy, shallow water, area of deposition.
Outer Bend: River cliff-fastest velocity, deep water, more energy, undercutting, erosion, river cliff