Geography Revision

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  • Created by: cheenar
  • Created on: 06-05-13 13:24

What is Globalisation?

Globalisation is the way the world's getting more interconnected due to increased trade and cultural exchange.

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TNCs

Transnational Corparations is a company that produces and sells goods or services in various countries.  

Factors attracting TNCs to a country are:

  • Chear raw materials.
  • Cheap labour supply. 
  • Good transport. 
  • Access to markets where the goods are sold. 
  • Friendly government policies. 
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Advantages and Disadvantages of TNCs

Advantages

  • Inward Investment by Tncs helps countries by porviding new jobs and skill for local people.
  • Brings wealth and foreign currency to local economies when they buy local resources, products and goods. 

 Disadvantages

  • Much of the employment is low paid, low skilled, long hours. 
  • Use of child labour knowing or unknowingly.
  • Much of the profit generated is exported. 
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Manufacturing of Clothes as a System

Inputs, Outputs, Processes-Trade is the exchange of goods and services between one country and another.

Goods bought into a country are called Inputs and those sold to another country are called Outputs. 

System- where a chain of events is followed to produce an outcome i.e. processes and outputs. 

INPUTS

  • Raw materials 
  • Labour 
  • Power Machines 
  • These are used to manufacture the end product

Processes 

  • Making the product.
  • Things needed/actions needed to assemble/ making the final product. 
  • Designing the product output. 
  • Sending the product around the world. 
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Hurricanes/Tropical storms - Characteristics

Hurricanes- A tropical storm that leads to high wind speeds and heavy rain. 

  • Can be up to 10 miles long and 500 miles wide
  • It travels at 208mph, but has wind speeds exceeding 75mph.  
  • Gains energy from moist water which increases their growth level until they cooler land where they ususally contract in strength
  • When it hits land it is capable of packing a very powerful punch!
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Where Hurricanes Form in The World

Hurricanes are tropical storms and are found in tropical areas where the ocean temperature is 26.5c. In the northern hemisphere, hurricanes generaly travel West then North.

Hurricanes usually form near the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricon. Where the Equator is between them.


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Impacts of a Hurricane/ Tropical storm

Hazardous impacts of a hurricane- 

  • Strong winds often exceeding 100mph. 
  • Torriental Rain. 
  • A rise in sea level called a Storm Surge. 

Short term responses 

  • Attending to injuries. 
  • Finding food and water and seeking shelter.
  • Searching for family and friends. 
  • Electricity, water and sanitation. 
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Similarities Between Tornadoes and Hurricanes

How are they alike?

  • can cause massive destruction 
  • their both powerful storms
  • Strong winds and rains 
  • Both can have long term effects on people 
  • Both of them are measured on a 5 point scale 



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Differences Between Tornadoes and Hurricanes

 Hurricanes                              Tornadoes  Begin at 75mph but go up                                                      Can go up to 350mph.          150mph. 

  Up to four days.                                                                     Up to 12 hours.       

  500 miles wide.                                                                     660 feet wide. 

  Thousands of feet in the                                                         Approx 1km in the air            air.                                                                                            (3,00 ft the most).

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Earthquakes - Where They Occur

The ocean floors are continually moving, spreading from the centre and sinking at the edges. 

At the edges of these plates plate boundries, earthquakes and volcanoes occur. 

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Characteristics of Earthquakes

Seismic shockwaves shake the ground, causing rigid buildings to collapse. A large quake may shake the earth so much that it fail to act like a solid any more and liquefaction occurs as the ground moves like water. Such movements can be devestating for any buildings or gas or water pipes in the area. 

The amount of energy that is realeased by an earthquake is called its magnitude. This is the measure on the Richter scale from 1 to 10. 

The intensity of an earthquake is a measure of how it affects the land, so it is measured in term of the damage caused. 

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Characteristics of Earthquakes

Seismic shockwaves shake the ground, causing rigid buildings to collapse. A large quake may shake the earth so much that it fail to act like a solid any more and liquefaction occurs as the ground moves like water. Such movements can be devestating for any buildings or gas or water pipes in the area. 

The amount of energy that is realeased by an earthquake is called its magnitude. This is the measure on the Richter scale from 1 to 10. 

The intensity of an earthquake is a measure of how it affects the land, so it is measured in term of the damage caused. 

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Impacts of Earthquakes

Earthquakes can destroy settlements and kill many people. Aftershocks can cause even more damage to an area. 

There are short term (immediate) impacts; and long term impacts. 

Short term: people have to leave their house, loss of electricity and phone lines, buildings have collapsed, police having to manage supplies, dust from the collapsed buildings everywhere, homeless.

Long term: can take a long time to rebuild, cost a lot to build, clearing the rubbish away, time and money to be rebuilt 

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Volcanoes - Where They Occur

The countires that are located Pacific Ring of Fire have a lot volcanic activities.

Volcanic eruption can happend at destructive and constructive boundaries. Volcanoes form when magma rises through cracks or weaknesses in the Earth's crust. 

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Characteristics of Eruptions

1995, 18 July- Chances peak volcano erupts for the first time in 350 years. Thousands are forced to evcauate. Many take up temporary residence in 'safe areas' in the north, while others flee to neighbouring Caribbean islands, to New York and Britain.

1997, 25 June- Soufriere Hills volcano erupts with devastating effects. Two thirds of the island is left uninhabitable and 19 people are killed. Plymouth, the capital, is abandoned. Monserrat's airport is closed, and the island is accessible only by helicopter or boat. 

2001, July- Eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano causes widespread disruption

2003, 12 July-  Largest volcanic eruption since Chances Peak in 1995 destroys many buildings on the edge of the safe zone. 

2004, 3 March- An explosion and collapse event lasts about 10 mins.

2005, 3 July- Explosive eruption. 


 

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