Geography - Population Change

Human Geography - first topic 

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World Population Growth

Current population approx - 6.8 billion


  • Stage 1 BR and DR both high but equal
  • Extreme lack of any health care, disease, poor diet,
  • no contraception, large families, no education
  • Stage 2 
  • BR remains high 
  • DR beginning to fall slowly
  • slight advances in medical in MEDCS
  • Stage 3 
  • DR falls rapidly in MEDC's and steadily in LEDC's 
  • BR falls in MEDC's but remains very high in LEDC's
  • Stage 4
  • DR naturally rises slightly in MEDC's
  • BR falls in LEDC's - contraception, education of woman 
  • DR>BR
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Demographic Transition Model -Stage 1

Stage 1

  • very high BR and DR
  • fluctuating at a high level
  • BR rates are high because of an extreme lack of contraception, 
  • needing large families for extra help with farming 
  • and lack of education
  • DR are fluctuating because of a lack of health care, 
  • famine, 
  • poor diet,
  •  epidemic/ diseases,
  •  war/ low life expectancy.
  • No countries in stage 1, only traditional rain forest tribes in this stage
  • low and stable total population, because both are the same and no change
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Demographic Transition Model - Stage 2

Stage 2

  • birth rate remains high (same as stage 1 reasons)
  • death rate is high but falling sharply
  • advances in medical care
  • increase in food supply
  • better diet
  • the poorer African LEDC's are in Stage 2 - Afghanistan 
  • Population rate is increases rapidly/sharply because BR>DR
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Demographic Transition Model - Stage 3

Stage 3

  • Birth rate falls sharply 
  • Advance in contraception available, 
  • advance in education,
  •  birth control, 
  • family planning, 
  • becoming wealthier so don't need children.
  • DR is continuing to fall slowly (for stage 2 reasons)
  • Total Population at the start is continuing to rise rapidly, towards the end total population is slowing down. 
  • Examples India, Brazil, China, NIC's etc. 
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Demographic Transition Model - Stage 4

Stage 4 

  • BR low, fluctuating  at a low level because of career mothers, information on contraception, 
  • MEDC's in Stage 4, USA, France, UK, Hong Kong
  • DR can't fall any more because of an ageing population, 
  • DR is low great education,
  • vaccinations, 
  • great health care
  • Total Population is pretty stable, zero growth.
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