Shows how a countrys population can be split into groups of men and women of different ages.
- Stage One - High Fluctuating: Young population, High BR, Low DR, Low life expectancy
- Stage Two - Early Expanding: Life expectancy slightly increased, High BR, Falling DR
- Stage Three - Late Expanding: Ageing population (longer LE), Low BR, Low DR, higher dependency ration
- Stage Four - Low Fluctuation: Low BR, Low DR (decreasing), higher dependency ratio
- Stage Five: Low and falling BR, falling fertility rate, ageing population
Birth/Death Rate: Number of births/deaths per 1000 population per year
Fertility Rate: Number of births per 1000 women of child bearing age group (15-44)
Infant Mortality Rate: Number of deaths of chidren under the age of one per 1000 per year.
Life Expectancy: Average number of years from birthday that person is expected to live
Natural Increase: Difference between no. of births and deaths for 100 people per year (%)
formula = birth rate - death rate
Reasons for High/Low Birth Rates
- Limited birth control/family planning
- High infant mortality
- Children are a future source of income
- Greater access to education for women
- Preferences for small families
- Increased personal wealth
- Dynamic - showing change through time.
- Describes what happened in the UK.
- Other countries ( N.America/Eurpoe) go through similar phases as they industrialised.
- Newly industrialised countires (NICs) - Sigapore/S.Korea, also repeat similar phases. (faster)
- Explains what happened and why in the particular sequence.
- Not relevant to non-industrialising countries.
- Stage 2 followed from Industrialisation (not true for other countries, factors causing decreasing DR - better medical care/sanitation etc)
- Stage 3 perhaps longer for some countries. (Stage 3 held back by the populations attitudes to family size, birth control, status and religion) - Chin'a One Child Policy.
- Stage 5 added (W.Europe/Japan late 20th Century)
- Countries slipping back into Stage 1 (Africa - DR increase - HIV/AIDs) DTM doesn't predict future for these countries.
Reasons for High/Falling Death rates
- Poor nutrition
- High incidence of disease
- Inadequate health facilities
- Improved public health
- Better nutrition
- Lower child mortality