Geography - Population

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: charlotte
  • Created on: 30-09-13 19:57

Population Pyramids

Shows how a countrys population can be split into groups of men and women of different ages.


  • Stage One - High Fluctuating: Young population, High BR, Low DR, Low life expectancy
  • Stage Two - Early Expanding: Life expectancy slightly increased, High BR, Falling DR
  • Stage Three - Late Expanding: Ageing population (longer LE), Low BR, Low DR, higher dependency ration
  • Stage Four - Low Fluctuation: Low BR, Low DR (decreasing), higher dependency ratio
  • Stage Five: Low and falling BR, falling fertility rate, ageing population
1 of 5

Population Indicators

Birth/Death Rate: Number of births/deaths per 1000 population per year

Fertility Rate: Number of births per 1000 women of child bearing age group (15-44)

Infant Mortality Rate: Number of deaths of chidren under the age of one per 1000 per year.

Life Expectancy: Average number of years from birthday that person is expected to live

Natural Increase: Difference between no. of births and deaths for 100 people per year (%)

formula = birth rate - death rate

2 of 5

Reasons for High/Low Birth Rates

Birth Rate:


- Limited birth control/family planning

- High infant mortality

- Children are a future source of income


- Greater access to education for women

- Preferences for small families

- Increased personal wealth

3 of 5

DTM validity


  • Dynamic - showing change through time.
  • Describes what happened in the UK.
  • Other countries ( N.America/Eurpoe) go through similar phases as they industrialised.
  • Newly industrialised countires (NICs) - Sigapore/S.Korea, also repeat similar phases. (faster)
  • Explains what happened and why in the particular sequence.


  • Not relevant to non-industrialising countries.
  • Stage 2 followed from Industrialisation (not true for other countries, factors causing decreasing DR - better medical care/sanitation etc)
  • Stage 3 perhaps longer for some countries. (Stage 3 held back by the populations attitudes to family size, birth control, status and religion) - Chin'a One Child Policy.
  • Stage 5 added (W.Europe/Japan late 20th Century)
  • Countries slipping back into Stage 1 (Africa - DR increase - HIV/AIDs) DTM doesn't predict future for these countries.
4 of 5

Reasons for High/Falling Death rates

Death Rate:


- Poor nutrition

- High incidence of disease

- Inadequate health facilities


- Improved public health

- Better nutrition

- Lower child mortality

5 of 5


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Population change and migration resources »