Constrating Living Standards: Brazil
In Rural Areas there tends to be less opportunities and therefore people tend to be poorer. In urban areas there are jobs and services which allow people to develop and earn more money. Even within urban areas there are significant differences, some people living in large expensive and modern housing and others living in slums. This then makes a country being called an LEDC too vague as there are huge differences within the country.
North: Tropical Rainforest, Remote and inhospitable. Government is giving financial aid to develop agriculture and mining.
North East: Drought region. Mostly large settlements and industry is found near the coast. Communications are poor and away from the coast it is mainly agricultural.
South East: Industrial heartland of Brazil, containing many manufacturing and servicing industries. Large cities and coastal Ports provide jobs. Good communications and infrastructure.
South: Recent Industrial development on the coast with growing urban areas.
Centre - West: Except for the industrial and commercial area of Brasilia, the area is mainly agricultural. It is remote with poor communications.
Oil Rich Countries - The Middle East
Oil is one of the worlds most important resources. A small nuber of countries in the Middle East have been able to sell large amounts of in the recent years because they produce far much more than they actually need. The wealth used to trade this oil has allowed the countries to develop rapidly, building new cities, communication networks and large areas of housing with schools and hospitals
Saudi Arabia has developed a lot over the years, before the discover of oil in the 1950's the people were desert nomads. they developed a major oil refining and petrochemical industries and today they have highly developed economic and social facilities. Most of the population live in modern cities, their children go to school and living standards are high. However some people regret the major development as they feel the country has lost its traditional values.
Three Gorges Dam Scheme
The Three Gorges is a narrow, steep sided part of the Yangtze River, one of the worlds longest Rivers. The Yangtze is home to more than 400 million people and provides China with more than 60% of its rice crop. The building of the Three Gorges Dam began in 1992, it is more than 2km long and 150m high and was completed in 2009. It cost between £17 and £21 Billion.
Advantages: - It will provide more than 10% of Chinas Electricity and reduce the buring of fossil fuels. -It will provide the cities nearby with electricity and encourage industry there. - Large ships will be able to reach Chongqing which is an area where development has been stunted and communication lost. - Create jobs. - New town and farms will be developed increasing living standards. -Lake could be used for fishing. - Prevent and protect the local people from the risks of flooding
Disadvantages: - A lake 600km in length will be created , flooding more than 150 towns and 4500 villages. -More than 1.3 million people will be forced to move. -The landscape will be changed forever. -Damage plant and animal life. -Human and industrial waste previously washed down the river will collect in the lake. -The Dam will trap millions of tonnes of silt, which will reduce soil fertility downstream. - Archaeological treasures including ancient temples will be drowned. -Volume of water may trigger an earthquake.
The Liana Project - Brazil
- Run by Rainforest Action Network (RAN) - Non Governmental Charity set up in 1985 to protect the Earth's rainforests and support the rights of their inhabitants. It aims to develop small rural community enterprises that sell liana vines and their products. These enterprises will cultivate and collect the vines in a sustainable way and produce finished and semi-finished goods locally. It recognises that the key to the ppreservation of the rainforest and its people and lies within the local communities. Traditionally, communities clear land for short term agricultural uses that eventually leave the land non-productive and unable to regenerate forests.Local people can then look after the forest.
It has developed a wicker furniture industry in Brazil using the rattan like Lianas that grow in the rainforests. project staff have found markets for the finished products in Brasil and the USA. They have given money, technical knowledge and equipment to the local communities who will then run their own businesses. At present the vines are harvested in the wild but RAN is working with local communities in developing methods of growing vines. The industry in using the forests in a sustainable way and giving local people the opportunity to use the forest resources for economic development.
Tools For Self Reliance, Africa
Tools For Self Reliance (TFSR), Every year they support at least 700 African groups in some of the poorest countries by providing then with tools they have requested. These are then collected by local organisations and they are ensured that the tools will be useful for the communities, and the tools get to the people that really need them.
TFSR works with local organisations in Ghana, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe, by focusing their efforts on these countries, TFSR hopes to make the best of their resources. This might be to start a training course so that young people can become blacksmiths, tailors, carpenters or builders.
In the UK 70 volunteer groups collect and repair tools. These come together to make kits and then sent off. This is preventing and reducing waste in the UK as less waste is being disposed of.
Teesside Part 1
In the 19th Century Ironstone was discovered in the Cleverland Hills. With the growth of railway this Ironstone was in great demand. The building of railways provided many jobs. Local towns grew rapidly and homes were then built to accomodate these.
Teesside has a number of advantages for the location of heavy Industry:
- Nearness of raw material
- A wide, deepwater estuary- ideal for importing raw materials and exporting finished products
- Large areas of flat land
- Nearness of the North Sea
- Direct trade links to Northern Europe
Types of Industry (as well as the iron and steel industry other heavy industries also developed)
- Petrochemicals - production of oils and tars
- Oil Refining - production of fuels from oil
- Engineering - Using locally produced metals to produced machinery
Teesside Part 2
The Growthin these industries have provided many jobs. However it also caused a growth in pollution causing in parts of the river no plant oor animal could survive. People very warned not to eat shell fish as there was a chance that they were contaminated.
Decline of Heavy Industry:
In the early 1970's there was aan increase in the price of oil which then lead to an industrial recession.Industies dependant on oil suffered badly. Unemployment then rose. In some parts of the region more that 40% of workers were unemployed. The main reason for the decline in job opportunities were:
- Introduction of new technology in the steel making and chemical industries
- Decline in the demand for local engeneering products
- Decline in the demand of shipping.
Recent Development in Teesside Part 1
By the mid 1980's many of the largest industries were reducing their workforce and factory closures were increasing the amount of derelict and polluted sites. The Teesside Development coporation was set up in May 1987. The aim was to use public money to improve the declining regions. This was done by cleaning derelict areas, building new infrastructure and encouraging private industry to set up in the area. This was successful as more jobs were created.
Major projects completed by TDC:
- Building a barrage across the river to reduce tidal flow so that the river can be used for leisure purposes
- Teesdale a big development mix creating shops, housing, offices and social facilities
- Tees Offshore Base, A derelict shipyard converted into a high tech centre for offshore technology linked to the North see Oil Industry
- Hartlepool Marina, the docks have been converted into a marina creating leisure and commercial area.
Recent Developments Teesside Part 2
Other developments included:
- Teesside National Park
- Riverside Park - Home to Middlesborough football club
- industrial estates
- Riverside Walkways
- New roads linking developments
Has it been successful?
- unemployment has fallen
- wider range of industries
- greater range of training and job opportunities
- improved environment
- improved living standards
- more leisure Facilities
So it has been very successful :)