Geography Paper 1

'The Restless Earth', 'Water On The Land' and 'The Coastal Zone' 

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  • Created by: Michael
  • Created on: 09-06-12 17:10

The Structure Of The Earth

  • The inner core is in the centre and is the hottest part of the Earth. It is solid and made up of iron and nickel with temperatures of up to 5,500°C. 
  • The outer core is the layer surrounding the inner core. It is a liquid layer, also made up of iron and nickel. Temperatures are similar to the inner core.
  • The mantle is the widest section of the Earth. The mantle is made up of semi-molten rock called magma. In the upper parts of the mantle the rock is hard, but lower down the rock is soft and beginning to melt.
  • The crust is the outer layer of the earth. It is a thin layer, the crust is the solid rock layer upon which we live.

Continental crust: Carries land

Andoceanic crust: Carries water


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(http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/images/tec_001.gif)

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Distribution

  • The Earth's crust is broken up into pieces called plates.
  • Heat rising and falling inside the mantle creates convection currents generated by radioactive decay in the core. The convection currents move the plates.
  • Where convection currents diverge near the Earth's crust, plates move apart. Where convection currents converge, plates move towards each other.
  • The movement of the plates, and the activity inside the Earth, is called plate tectonics.
  • Plate tectonics cause earthquakes and volcanoes. 
  • The point where two plates meet is called a plate boundary.
  • Earthquakes and volcanoes are most likely to occur either on or near plate boundaries.
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Constructive Plate Boundary

At a Constructive Boundary the plates move apart.

(http://www.frankswebspace.org.uk/ScienceAndMaths/physics/physicsGCSE/bytesize%20images/techPlateBoundaries1.gif)

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Destructive Plate Boundary

At a Destructive Boundary the plates move towards each other.

(http://www.frankswebspace.org.uk/ScienceAndMaths/physics/physicsGCSE/bytesize%20images/techPlateBoundaries2.gif)

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