Geography key words

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site the actual land on which a settlement is built e.g. is it well drained, flat, near resources? situation where a settlement is in relation to the surrounding area e.g. near other settlements, natural features dry point site settlement near an area prone to either flooding or have marshy lands wet point site settlement chosen for its access to fresh water e.g. oases in the desert or springs where permeable meets impermeable rock, for example in Lincolnshire. defensive site a site chosen because of defence reasons - meander core in Durham or hill top like Edinburgh bridging point site settlement where routes converge onto easily crossable point in river due to it being shallow e.g. in Cambridge river confluence site where 2 rivers meet, for example Khartoum where the Blue meets the White Nile. nodal points a point where accessibility is increased due to rivers, rail or roads converging. gap settlement settlement located in a valley, which cuts through / across hills, for example like at Lincoln. nucleated settlement most dwellings are grouped together. Causes include conflict in the past where a need for defence was strong dispersed settlement most dwellings scattered over wide area as small hamlets, isolated dwellings linear settlement where dwellings have developed along a main transport route function the purpose of a settlement whether it be administrative, service, industrial, port, coastal or dormitory conurbation large built up area created by the growth and joining together of several once separate towns, cities. Usually greater than 1 million, e.g. Greater London settlement hierarchy the ordering of settlements based on size / importance settlement numbers as you go up the settlement hierarchy the number of settlements in each level decreases. convenience goods necessities rather than luxuries, frequently purchased and cheap. Used by most people and nearby e.g. newsagents comparison goods luxuries, less frequently purchased and more expensive. e.g. clothes, shoes etc. range the maximum distance people are willing to travel to visit a shop threshold minimum level of demand to make a shop profitable. sphere of influence the area around a settlement within which people travel to obtain goods / services in that settlement. service what a settlement provides for its people - e.g. hospitals, schools etc. urbanisation the proportion of people living in urban areas (towns and cities) push factors things which force people from the rural to urban areas pull factors things which attract people to the urban area urban land use 2 main urban models which are Burgess (concentric circles) and Hoyt (sectors) bid rent theory the amount that a particular land sue can pay for a site, which depends on the benefit it receives from being there Based on the idea that the pattern of land use is commercial, industrial and finally residential sector land use 1. Industry develops along main transport routes because of accessibility e.g. railways, rivers and roads. patterns 2. High income housing tends to avoid industrial zones and grows towards attractive environments 3. Low income housing sectors tend to grow either side of an industrial sector. CBD central business district. Case study - Bromley inner city lower class terraced housing and council estates. Case study - London Docklands terraced housing 2 up and 2 down, basic, low class factory homes developed in a line LDDC London Docklands Development Corporation, set up in 1981. regeneration the process of revamping an area economically, socially, environmentally and transport wise. gentrification the movement of the upper class (wealthy) back into the inner cities to live in the luxury flats -YUPPIES rural urban fringe the edges of the city urban sprawl the unplanned and uncontrollable growth outwards from the city (Silsden, Bradford). greenbelt zone around a city which development is severely restricted by law. Protected land for recreation for those from the city greenfield site an area of countryside / open space that has not yet been built upon brownfield site disused and derelict land in an urban area that is available for redevelopment shanty towns an area of poor quality housing lacking in amenities such as water supply, sewerage and electricity which often develops spontaneously. illegal, and in a city in a LEDC self-help schemes groups of people encouraged to build their own homes using materials provided by the local authorities. informal sector manual, low skilled employment such as shoe shining and car washing particularly in LEDC cities. Often unregulated. relatively labour intensive, exists outside the tax system and is often illegal.

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industry system a system that has inputs, outputs and processes processes actions within the industry that change the raw materials into the finished product primary industry an industry that extracts raw materials from the earth or sea (farming / mining etc.) secondary industry an industry that processes raw materials into finished articles tertiary industry an industry that provides a service quaternary industry a hi-tech industry such as electronics employment structure with regard to industry this is the % of people involved in primary, secondary and tertiary sector jobs. In the UK, there is a movement towards the tertiary sector integrated industry where all the stages in the manufacturing take place in one location E.g. iron and steel works weight loss industry an industry, such as iron and steel, which produces a product which is lighter than the raw materials tidewater location a deep-water location on the coasts that is ideal for transport (import / export) of raw materials Redcar Lakenby a tidewater location that has a large integrated iron and steel works (north-east England) Port Talbot a tidewater location that has a large integrated iron and steel works (south Wales) Sunderland a deprived part of north-east England It received special grants from the government to increase the prosperity of the area. This includes the Nissan car factory locating in the area. M4 / M11 corridors a corridor of hi-tech development with close access to skilled labour and research establishments Setubal a car plant in Portugal, which has kicked off growth in the surrounding area, due to massive investment Main investors: EU and MNC raw materials material found in the earth naturally, such as coal and iron ore brownfield site disused and discarded industrial land in an urban area, ready for development greenfield site an area of countryside that has not yet been built upon labour the workforce factors affecting the these can be physical or human. location of an industry Physical factors include: proximity to natural resources, power supplies, natural routes and site / land. Human factors can include labour, markets, government policy and technology. government policy initiatives take by the government to bring back prosperity to an area. These include making areas UDCs and Zest, or giving financial incentives to companies to locate there. deindustrialisation the decline in the manufacturing sector, leading to unemployment and the demultiplier effect UDCs / EZs areas of land that have received special grants from the government This is done in order to increase the prosperity of the area multiplier effect locating an industry, creating prosperity throughout the area, in other sectors - like the domino effect research and development the design of new products, often in science parks, such as Cambridge Science Park NIC a newly industrialised country which has experienced massive industrial growth, over the last 30 years E.g. South Korea MNC large global countries that have factories all over the world Generally, the research and development in MEDCs and the production line in LEDCs globalisation the spread of industry and ideas to all parts of the world, making connections between us all footloose industry an industry that can locate anywhere, as there are no ties to raw materials assembly industry an industry that has many parts brought together from different areas, and are all put together in one place appropriate technology a technology appropriate to the place it is used, as in weaving in Ghana formal economy skilled, business-type jobs where workers receive benefits and protection informal economy low-skilled, manual jobs, which are reliant on the individual

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Managing resources

tourism the act of going on holiday for more than 24 hours mass tourism the development of tourism since the 1960s; people started going to Benidorm instead of Brighton This coincided with the development of package holidays tourism growth due to greater wealth / affluence, increased desire to go to places abroad, increased leisure time etc. National Park an area set aside for the protection if its scenery, vegetation and wildlife so that people now… … and in the future may enjoy it Honey pot site a place of attractive scenery or historic interest, which attracts tourists in large numbers Conflict this occurs in all areas because people have different attitudes and values to how places should be used Second homes usually found in National Parks (e.g. Lake District) and are owned by city dwellers who use them infrequently Often left empty, they cause inflated house prices, forcing out locals who cannot afford the cost Ecotourism a sustainable form of green tourism aimed at protecting the environment and local cultures Safaris holidays taken in Southern Africa, in countries such as Kenya, which involve camping and observing wildlife They may cause environmental harm to an area Sustainable a way of improving people's standard of living and quality of life development without wasting resources or harming the environment - protecting the environment for present and future generation's needs Resources a feature of the environment that is needed and used by people Energy the amount of energy produced per person consumption There is a direct relationship between energy consumption and GNP Non-renewable a finite resource, such as fossil fuels, which once used cannot be replaced Renewable a sustainable resource, such as solar energy or water power, which can be used over and over again Fossil fuels non-renewable forms of energy which, when used, release carbon Global warming the increase in the world's average temperature, believed to be as a result of the release of carbon dioxide … … and other gases into the atmosphere, from the burning of fossil fuels Greenhouse the natural warming of the earth's atmosphere by the release of greenhouse gases effect It is vital to maintain a balance of world temperature Acid rain rainwater containing chemicals that result from the burning of fossil fuels Overpopulation when the number of people living in an area exceeds the amount of resources available to them Alternative a movement away from the traditional forms of energy used in today's' society energy The alternative energy is concentrated on renewable sources, such as wind, solar etc. Geothermal uses heated rocks within the earth's crust to produce steam and generate electricity - green and clean energy Biofuels fuels such as timber derived from living organisms - renewable Wind energy uses wind farms to create electricity - renewable Wave energy uses the power of the waves to create electricity - renewable Nuclear power a very efficient method of creating electricity, using the nuclear fission of uranium Tidal uses the power of the tides to create electricity - renewable Solar uses the power of the sun to create electricity - renewable HEP hydroelectric power - uses the power of a flowing river to create electricity - renewable Kyoto the place where the Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997, where countries agreed to cut carbon emissions by 2015 Recycling the reusin in manufacture of a material in everyday life, such as bottles, plastic etc.

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inner core solid, made of iron and nickel up to 5000 degrees - the engine room of the earth outer core solid, made of iron and nickel up to 5000 degrees mantle widest section of the earth at 2900km. Semi molten rock called magma. crust outer layer of the earth between 0 and 60km thick. There is continental and oceanic crust. tectonic plates 13 major plates of the earth's crust which make up our lithosphere convection currents currents within the mantle which make the plates drift and move at 6cm per year oceanic plate younger, denser plate made of basalt continental plate older, lighter plate. Cannot be destroyed destructive Continental vs. Oceanic - where an oceanic plate sinks beneath a continental plate e.g. Nazca and South American plates destructive Oceanic vs. Oceanic - where an oceanic plate sinks beneath another oceanic plate. e.g. Caribbean and North American plates constructive where 2 plates move away from each other - e.g. Mid Atlantic Ridge collision where two continental plates move together - e.g. Himalayas. conservative plates slide past each other - e.g. San Andreas Fault fold mountains formed by plates colliding and pushing together of sea sediments on the sea floor - e.g. Andes island arcs a chain of volcanic islands formed at an ocean vs. oceanic plate boundary subduction zone the point at which the oceanic plate moves down under the continental plate Richter scale scale used to measure earthquakes with values 1 - 9. focus the point of the earthquake. epicentre the point of the earthquake on the surface of the earth magnitude the power of the earthquake seismometer instrument used to measure seismic waves of an earthquake seismic waves energy released from a tectonic event active volcano those which have erupted recently and are likely to erupt again dormant volcano these habe not erupted for a long time but may erupt again soon extinct volcano unlikely ever to erupt again composite volcano made of layers of alternating ash and lava shield volcano low wide cone with gentle slopes and fluid lava dome volcano tall narrow cone with steep sides and viscous lava pyroclastic flow very fast flows of hot gases, ash, steam and debris lahars mud flows caused by very hot ash melting ice / snow magma chamber where magma builds up at the base of a volcano

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coast a narrow contact zone between land and sea waves movement of water created by a transfer of energy Caused by the wind blowing over the surface of the sea fetch the maximum distance of water which winds can blow swash the movement of water and energy up the beach backwash the return of water and energy down the beach headlands form along coastlines where there are alternating outcrops and bays Resistant / less resistant rocks wave cut notch waves undercutting the base of the cliffs wave cut platform a platform which originally had the cliff on The cliff has then retreated over time due to erosion beaches a build up of sediment in sheltered areas made of shingle and sand spit a permanent landform resulting from marine deposition A long narrow accumulation of sand or shingle built up by long shore drift. One end is attached to the land and the other is projecting at a narrow angle into the sea. It can be hooked due to a change in the wind direction. coastal erosion processes: abrasion caused by large waves hurling beach material against the cliff attrition waves cause rocks and boulders on the beach to bump into each other, and break up into smaller particles solution when salts and other acids in seawater dissolve a cliff hydraulic action the force of waves compressing air in cracks in a cliff coastal deposition processes: traction rolling stones along the bed saltation sand-sized particles bounce along the bed suspension particles carried within the flow solution some minerals dissolved in the water coastal management techniques these can be categorised as either hard or soft methods groynes help to reduce the force of the waves and can trap material being moved along the beach by long shore drift They widen beaches and protect cliffs. sea-walls may be curved at the top to reflect back the force of the waves revetments made of wooden slats to build up material behind and help dissipate the wave energy rip-rap large boulders which absorb the power of the waves gabions steel mesh cages filled with small rocks which absorb wave erosion beach nourishment the environment agency adds sand to beaches to make them wider and deeper cliff stabilisation pipes can be inserted to remove excess water and vegetation planted to stabilise exposed soil managed retreat letting nature do its own job building defences such as salt marshes and sand dunes AONB Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty SSSI Site of Special Scientific Interest

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glaciation a period of time when an area is covered in ice The last period in the UK was over 10,000 years ago. The warmer periods are known as interglacials glacier a large moving piece of ice, made of layers of compressed snow and ice glacial systems the inputs (precipitation), outputs (melt water) and processes (flows) within the glacial system zone of accumulation where inputs are exceeding the outputs, making the glacier advance zone of ablation where outputs are exceeding the inputs, making the glacier retreat crevasses a deep crack or fissure on the surface of an ice sheet or valley glacier melt water stream the melting of a glacier at its snout, creating a stream snout the end of the glacier glacial erosion the process of the land being shaped by the power of the glacier freeze thaw action water collecting in joints, freezing, expanding and putting pressure on the rock Over time, the rocks break down and fall down the valley sides, which provides material for the glacier to transport. abrasion rock fragments carried in the glacier grinding against the valley sides and base as the glacier moves. This wears away and deepens the land. plucking ice freezing into rock. As the glacier moves forwards, it pulls away the rock. rotational slide the movement of ice in a corrie, which deepens the base of the corrie itself glacial erosion landforms these are created by the processes of glacial erosion corries / cwms a three-sided armchair-shaped hollow, formed by glacial erosion tarn the lake left in the corrie after a period of glaciation arête when 2 corries erode backwards, forming a knife-edged ridge pyramidal peak when 3 corries erode backwards, forming a sharp peak U-shaped valley also known as a glacial trough, a glacier travelling through a V-shaped valley that has carved it truncated spurs a piece of resistant rock, sticking out which has been chopped off by a glacier travelling through a U-shaped valley ribbon lakes long, narrow lakes which occupy rock basins in U-shaped valleys hanging valleys a tributary valley to a larger valley, over a deepened glacial trough. Where two valleys meet, the tributary may hang several hundred metres above the main valley, creating a waterfall. glacial deposition the process when material is deposited due to the glacier losing energy moraine material deposited by the glacier glacial till unsorted material transported and deposited by the glacier. Usually a mixture of clay, sand and gravels lateral moraine a narrow, linear band of rock debris, which runs along the margins of a glacier medial moraine material that has been deposited by glacier when 2 meet together, and their lateral moraine meets terminal moraine a prominent ridge of debris dumped at the end of the glacier recessional moraine these mark interruptions in the retreat of a glacier drumlins smooth, elongated mounds of material formed parallel to the direction of the ice movement They consist of clays and sands, believed to be deposited by glaciers when they lose energy. They are shaped by ice erratics rocks carried by ice and deposited in an area of totally different rocks

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