Geography - Ice on the Land

A selection of stuff you need to know for the exam.

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Landforms 1

U-Shaped Valley (Glacial Trough)

Example - Langdale Valley, Lake District

  • Has a wide floor and steep sides
  • It is created as a glacier moves down the valley
  • Has a U shape as the glacier smashs through

Truncated Spur

Example - El Captain (Yosemite)

  • A steep bluff
  • Situated on the side of a Glacial Trough
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Landforms 2


Example - Red Tarn (Helvellyn)

  • A circular, arm chair shaped hollow
  • Cut into bedrock


Example - Striding Edge (Helvellyn)

  • A steep knife edge
  • Found between 2 Corries
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Landforms 3

Pyramidal Peak

Example - The Matterhorn (Alps)

  • A mountain peak
  • Formed when 3 or 4 Cirques have eroded back-to-back

Hanging Valley

Example - Base Brown (Lake District)

  • A high level tributary valley from which the ground falls sharply to a lower, main valley
  • Usually has a waterfall
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Landforms 4

Ribbon Lake

Example - Lake Windermere (Lake District)

  • A long, narrow lake
  • Found in a Glacial trough
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Ice Cap

  • a small body of ice (less than 50,000km sq.)
  • Found in Mountain Regions

Ice Sheet

  • a large body of ice (over 50,000km sq.)


  • A finger of ice that extends downhill from an ice cap
  • occupies a valley
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